Interaction of Stress and Immune Responses in Prokaryotes
Pp. 155-181 (27)
In prokaryote cells, stress response interacts with immune response. Stress
caused by diverse factors from DNA damage to heat, low pH, heavy metals, antibiotics,
and toxins leads to the induction of proviruses and movement of mobile genetic
elements. This can lead to horizontal gene transfer of immune mechanisms encoded by
such elements and stimulate the evolution of bacterial immune defenses. The viral
infection is associated with changes in host membranes and metabolism, which can be
sensed as stress. Such stress then affects immune mechanisms. Stress can activate
CRISPR-Cas systems preventively before they encounter an intruder. During DNA
damage and associated DNA repair, unmodified R/M recognition sites may appear in
the prokaryotic genome. To avoid targeting such sites by R/M systems, their activity is
downregulated during stress.
Bacteriophage-encoded toxins, CRISPR-Cas, Envelope stress
response, Immunity, Prokaryotes, Provirus induction, Phage shock protein, R/M
autoimmunity, Restriction alleviation, Stress, Stress response.
Department of Molecular Cell & Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles CA, USA.