Inhibition of Hemoglobin Degrading Protease Falcipain-2 as a Mechanism for Anti-Malarial Activity of Triazole-Amino Acid Hybrids

Author(s): Vigyasa Singh, Rahul Singh Hada, Amad Uddin, Babita Aneja, Mohammad Abid, Kailash C. Pandey, Shailja Singh*

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 20 , Issue 5 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Background: Novel drug development against malaria parasite over old conventional antimalarial drugs is essential due to rapid and indiscriminate use of drugs, which led to the emergence of resistant strains.

Methods: In this study, previously reported triazole-amino acid hybrids (13-18) are explored against Plasmodium falciparum as antimalarial agents. Among six compounds, 15 and 18 exhibited antimalarial activity against P. falciparum with insignificant hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity towards HepG2 mammalian cells. In molecular docking studies, both compounds bind into the active site of PfFP-2 and block its accessibility to the substrate that leads to the inhibition of target protein further supported by in vitro analysis.

Results: Antimalarial half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 15 and 18 compounds were found to be 9.26 μM and 20.62 μM, respectively. Blood stage specific studies showed that compounds, 15 and 18 are effective at late trophozoite stage and block egress pathway of parasites. Decreased level of free monomeric heme was found in a dose dependent manner after the treatment with compounds 15 and 18, which was further evidenced by the reduction in percent of hemoglobin hydrolysis. Compounds 15 and 18 hindered hemoglobin degradation via intra- and extracellular cysteine protease falcipain-2 (PfFP-2) inhibitory activity both in in vitro and in vivo in P. falciparum.

Conclusion: We report antimalarial potential of triazole-amino acid hybrids and their role in the inhibition of cysteine protease PfFP-2 as its mechanistic aspect.

Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, Cysteine protease, Falcipain-2, Hemoglobin degradation, In-vivo protease activity, Triazole- amino acid hybrids.

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Year: 2020
Page: [377 - 389]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1568026620666200130162347
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