Background: Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. (Kareel) is a multifunctional perennial woody plant belongs to the family Capparaceae, widely distributed in the hot arid regions of different parts of the world especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa and Saudi Arabia.
Objective: The review aims at presenting updated information with respect to ethnopharmacological relevance and recent findings on phytochemical and biological activities of Capparis decidua.
Method: The literature survey was carried out with the help of various sources such as Scifinder, Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar.
Results: Phytochemical review of the plant has revealed the presence of mainly glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, volatile oils, fatty acids and steroids that possess immense pharmacological activities. The plant has been used traditionally as an expectorant, carminative, digestive, stimulant, antimicrobial, aphrodisiac, anodyne, anthelmintic and is also useful in ailments like cough, dropsy, dyspepsia, intermittent fever, asthma, intestinal worms, constipation, lumbago, odontalgia, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea and cardiac disorders etc. Several pharmacological and biological activities using various parts of the plant have been reported like antidiabetic, antiparasitic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, anti-gout, in-vitro cytotoxicity activity, antihyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-nephrolithiasis, anti-microbial and anti-fungal. Nutritionally, the fruits of the plant are used for preparing pickle and also in the food preparations since ancient times.
Conclusion: Even though the plant has numerous pharmacological properties, there are many secluded pharmacological activities of the plant which still needs to be explored. Considering the importance of the plant in the pharmaceutical and nutritional area, the present review is an attempt to focus on up to date studies performed on the plant C. decidua, mainly concerning the phytochemical and pharmacological significance, which will benefit researchers having an interest in the relevant field.