Three-dimensional (3D) printing is increasingly used in medical applications with most
of the studies focusing on its applications in medical education and training, pre-surgical planning
and simulation, and doctor-patient communication. An emerging area of utilising 3D printed models
lies in the development of cardiac computed tomography (CT) protocols for visualisation and
detection of cardiovascular disease. Specifically, 3D printed heart and cardiovascular models have
shown potential value in the evaluation of coronary plaques and coronary stents, aortic diseases
and detection of pulmonary embolism. This review article provides an overview of the clinical
value of 3D printed models in these areas with regard to the development of optimal CT scanning
protocols for both diagnostic evaluation of cardiovascular disease and reduction of radiation dose.
The expected outcomes are to encourage further research towards this direction.
Keywords: 3D printing, coronary artery disease, heart disease, plaque, stent, visualisation.
Sun Z. Personalized three-dimensional printed coronary artery models for accurate assessment of coronary stenosis using high resolution imaging modality. AMJ 2019; 12: 105-9.
Rynio P, Kazimierczak A, Jedrzejczak T, Gutowski P. A 3- dimensional printed aortic arch template to facilitate decisionmaking regarding the use of an externalized transapical wire during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair. Ann Vasc Surg 2019. 54:336e5-336e8
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