Background: Gracilaria has been shown to be an important source of marine bioactive
natural biomaterials and compounds. Although there are no enough patents used Gracilaria
worldwide, the current study tries to put the Gracilaria on the spot for further important patents in
Objective: The current study investigates the pharmaceuticals and biochemical activity of
Gracilaria because no previous studies have been carried out to examine the biochemical and
pharmaceutical activates of Gracilaria from the Suez Canal of Egypt as an excellent source for bioactive
Methods: Different advanced experimental models and analytical techniques, such as cytotoxicity,
total antioxidant capacity, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory profiling were applied. The phytochemical
analysis of different constituents was also carried out.
Results: The mineral analysis revealed the presence of copper (188.3 ppm) and iron (10.07 ppm)
in addition to a remarkable wealth of selenium and sulfur contents giving up to 36% of its dry
mass. The elemental analysis showed high contents of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. The GCMS
profiling showed varieties of different bioactive compounds, such as fatty acids, different
types of carotenoids in addition to pigments, alkaloids, steroids. Many other compounds, such as
carbohydrates and amino acids having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities, etc.
were identified. The cytotoxicity activity of Gracilaria marine extract was very effective against
cancerous cell lines and showed high ability as a potent antitumor due to their bioactive constituents.
Specialized screening assays using two anticancer experimental models, i.e., PTK and SKH1
revealed 77.88% and 84.50% inhibition anticancer activity; respectively. The anti-inflammatory
activities investigated using four different experimental models, i.e., COX1, COX2, IL6, and TNF
resulted in 68%, 81.76%, 56.02% and 78.43% inhibition; respectively. Moreover, Gracilaria extracts
showed potent anti-Alzheimer with all concentrations.
Conclusion: Gracilaria proved to be a multi-product source of marine natural products for
different biotechnological applications. Our recommendation is to investigate the Gracilaria bioactive
secondary metabolites in order to create and innovate in more patents from current important