Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, being a resistive species is an incessant
threat to the world population for the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB). An advanced genetic or a
molecular level approach is mandatory for both diagnosis and therapy as the prevalence of multi
drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug- resistant (XDR) TB.
Methods: A literature review was conducted, focusing essentially on the development of biomarkers
and targets to extrapolate the Tuberculosis Drug Discovery process.
Results and Discussion: In this article, we have discussed several substantial targets and genetic
mutations occurring in a diseased or treatment condition of TB patients. It includes expressions in
Bhlhe40, natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) and vitamin D receptor
(VDR) with its mechanistic actions that have made a significant impact on TB. Moreover, recently
identified compounds; imidazopyridine amine derivative (Q203), biphenyl amide derivative
(DG70), azetidine, thioquinazole, tetrahydroindazole and 2- mercapto- quinazoline scaffolds for
several targets such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), amino acid and fatty acid have been briefed
for their confirmed hits and therapeutic activity.