Evaluation of Two Fast Virtual Stenting Algorithms for Intracranial Aneurysm Flow Diversion

Author(s): Saeb R. Lamooki, Vincent M. Tutino, Nikhil Paliwal, Robert J. Damiano, Muhammad Waqas, Setlur S.V. Nagesh, Hamidreza Rajabzadeh-Oghaz, Kunal Vakharia, Adnan H. Siddiqui, Hui Meng*

Journal Name: Current Neurovascular Research

Volume 17 , Issue 1 , 2020

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Background: Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) by flow diverter (FD) stents depends on flow modification. Patient-specific modeling of FD deployment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could enable a priori endovascular strategy optimization. We developed a fast, simplistic, expansion-free balls-weeping algorithm to model FDs in patientspecific aneurysm geometry. However, since such strong simplification could result in less accurate simulations, we also developed a fast virtual stenting workflow (VSW) that explicitly models stent expansion using pseudo-physical forces.

Methods: To test which of these two fast algorithms more accurately simulates real FDs, we applied them to virtually treat three representative patient-specific IAs. We deployed Pipeline Embolization Device into 3 patient-specific silicone aneurysm phantoms and simulated the treatments using both balls-weeping and VSW algorithms in computational aneurysm models. We then compared the virtually deployed FD stents against experimental results in terms of geometry and post-treatment flow fields. For stent geometry, we evaluated gross configurations and porosity. For post-treatment aneurysmal flow, we compared CFD results against experimental measurements by particle image velocimetry.

Results: We found that VSW created more realistic FD deployments than balls-weeping in terms of stent geometry, porosity and pore density. In particular, balls-weeping produced unrealistic FD bulging at the aneurysm neck, and this artifact drastically increased with neck size. Both FD deployment methods resulted in similar flow patterns, but the VSW had less error in flow velocity and inflow rate.

Conclusion: In conclusion, modeling stent expansion is critical for preventing unrealistic bulging effects and thus should be considered in virtual FD deployment algorithms. Also endowed with its high computational efficiency and superior accuracy, the VSW algorithm is a better candidate for implementation into a bedside clinical tool for FD deployment simulation.

Keywords: Particle image velocimetry, computational fluid dynamics, validation, cerebral aneurysm, endovascular therapy, flow diverting stent.

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Year: 2020
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DOI: 10.2174/1567202617666200120141608
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