Periodontal Pathogens and Neuropsychiatric Health

Author(s): Abhishek Wadhawan, Mark A. Reynolds, Hina Makkar, Alison J. Scott, Eileen Potocki, Andrew J. Hoisington, Lisa A. Brenner, Aline Dagdag, Christopher A. Lowry, Yogesh Dwivedi, Teodor T. Postolache*

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 20 , Issue 15 , 2020


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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Increasing evidence incriminates low-grade inflammation in cardiovascular, metabolic diseases, and neuropsychiatric clinical conditions, all important causes of morbidity and mortality. One of the upstream and modifiable precipitants and perpetrators of inflammation is chronic periodontitis, a polymicrobial infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) playing a central role in the disease pathogenesis. We review the association between P. gingivalis and cardiovascular, metabolic, and neuropsychiatric illness, and the molecular mechanisms potentially implicated in immune upregulation as well as downregulation induced by the pathogen. In addition to inflammation, translocation of the pathogens to the coronary and peripheral arteries, including brain vasculature, and gut and liver vasculature has important pathophysiological consequences. Distant effects via translocation rely on virulence factors of P. gingivalis such as gingipains, on its synergistic interactions with other pathogens, and on its capability to manipulate the immune system via several mechanisms, including its capacity to induce production of immune-downregulating micro-RNAs. Possible targets for intervention and drug development to manage distal consequences of infection with P. gingivalis are also reviewed.

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Dementia, Cardiovascular disease, Metabolic syndrome, Suicidal behavior, Mood disorders, micro-RNAs.

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VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 15
Year: 2020
Published on: 31 May, 2020
Page: [1353 - 1397]
Pages: 45
DOI: 10.2174/1568026620666200110161105
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