Uncovering the Diversification of Tissue Engineering on the Emergent Areas of Stem Cells, Nanotechnology and Biomaterials

Author(s): Sunil K. Dubey*, Amit Alexander*, Munnangi Sivaram, Mukta Agrawal, Gautam Singhvi, Swapnil Sharma, Richa Dayaramani

Journal Name: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Volume 15 , Issue 3 , 2020

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Abstract:

Damaged or disabled tissue is life-threatening due to the lack of proper treatment. Many conventional transplantation methods like autograft, iso-graft and allograft are in existence for ages, but they are not sufficient to treat all types of tissue or organ damages. Stem cells, with their unique capabilities like self-renewal and differentiate into various cell types, can be a potential strategy for tissue regeneration. However, the challenges like reproducibility, uncontrolled propagation and differentiation, isolation of specific kinds of cell and tumorigenic nature made these stem cells away from clinical application. Today, various types of stem cells like embryonic, fetal or gestational tissue, mesenchymal and induced-pluripotent stem cells are under investigation for their clinical application. Tissue engineering helps in configuring the stem cells to develop into a desired viable tissue, to use them clinically as a substitute for the conventional method. The use of stem cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) is being studied to replace the stem cells, which decreases the immunological complications associated with the direct administration of stem cells. Tissue engineering also investigates various biomaterials to use clinically, either to replace the bones or as a scaffold to support the growth of stemcells/ tissue. Depending upon the need, there are various biomaterials like bio-ceramics, natural and synthetic biodegradable polymers to support replacement or regeneration of tissue. Like the other fields of science, tissue engineering is also incorporating the nanotechnology to develop nano-scaffolds to provide and support the growth of stem cells with an environment mimicking the Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the desired tissue. Tissue engineering is also used in the modulation of the immune system by using patient-specific Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and by modifying the physical features of scaffolds that may provoke the immune system. This review describes the use of various stem cells, biomaterials and the impact of nanotechnology in regenerative medicine.

Keywords: Stem cell, tissue engineering, nanotechnology, regenerative medicine, scaffold, transplantation.

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