Pediatric atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disease, affecting
20% of children all over the world especially in developed countries. The global prevalence of
AD in children has been increasing over recent years. This chronic inflammatory skin disease causes
economic and social burden to the family. The exact cause of AD is not known, however recent studies
suggest that the imbalance of microflora present in the gut leads to AD. The current treatment of
AD involves the application of moisturizer, topical corticosteroids, antihistamines and antibiotics.
This line of treatment of AD in children has many side effects. An alternative novel therapeutic approach
has to be explored to combat this chronic skin disease. In recent years, there has been increasing
interest in the use of probiotics in the modulation of gut microbiota for the management of AD.
Many research studies showed that the administration of probiotics gives positive results in the prevention
and treatment of AD in children, however, the results are not consistent and conclusive. In
this review, the phenomenon that the dysbiosis of the gut flora contributes to the development of AD
is addressed and clinical evidence of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD children is also