Bamboo species belonging to the Poaceae family, Poaceae has overall about 1,500 species,
and 87 genera worldwide, randomly distributed between humid tropical, sub-tropical and mildmoderate
regions across the globe. The plant has superior value in traditional indigenous systems of
China, Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani for its enormous medicinal and nutritional purposes since 2500
years. It was the apparent beginning of bamboo used as a medication, which was trailed by a series
of modern research and consequently formed a core scientific ingredient in a research laboratory.
The current review is a critical study for the evaluation of state-of-the-art concerning phytochemistry,
pharmacology and traditional uses of bamboo species of different genera, which put forward systemic
research stratagems and to streamline the therapeutic exploration for the management of human
The present review documents systemic overview of the scientific reports relating to the different
bamboo species from older text, ancient literature available in the last five to six decades, e-books
and various online databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar, Springer, Francis
&Taylor, SciFinder, etc.). Additional information was acquired from conference proceedings, botanical
books, and dissertations for this work.
Bamboo species belonging to six different genera were explored for its medicinal and ethnomedicinal
uses for treatment of inflammatory disorders, ulcers, diabetes, solid tumour, blood purifier, menstrual
disorders, and infertility to name a few. The therapeutic potentials, along with their mechanism of action,
are concisely deliberated and recapitulated in this review. Bamboo is rich in its nutritive value and
has been explored as food and fodder. Studies related to the biological activity of bamboo species revealed
that they possess twenty-one promising activities such as anticancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective,
anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and antibacterial. Eighty-two
phytochemical studies have been summarized in this review which is majorly due to the presence of
secondary active metabolites such as phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroid glycosides and coumarins
along with minor constituents like polysaccharides, ketones, tannins, lignans, vitamins, amino acids,
minerals, and essential oils. A critical assessment of the compiled scientific literature indicates serious
efforts for systemic evaluation of the traditional claims and to identify, isolate and evaluate the phytoconstituents
for nutritional and therapeutic potentials. Although the plant has immense potential in the
health care system, still there is abundant need and avenues for commercialisation and awareness to society
for the use of new health care products of bamboo.
The present review affirms that bamboo owing to its rich phytochemical spectrum is the epitome
plant with a vast potential for the pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, nutraceutical, and food industry.