Pulmonary Nocardiosis in Pemphigus Vulgaris Patients from Tehran, Iran

Author(s): Hossein Ali Rahdar, Abass Bahador, Shahram Shahraki-Zahedani, Morteza Karami-Zarandi, Tahereh Soori, Sirous Jafari, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi*

Journal Name: Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders

Volume 21 , Issue 1 , 2021


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Abstract:

Objective: Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection in individuals who had organ transplants and in patients with immunosuppressive diseases such as pemphigus Vulgaris (PV), diabetes mellitus, and HIV. Nocardiosis rate has not been assessed in Iranian PV patients, and this was the first study to estimate nocardiosis rate in these patients.

Methods: In this study, 103 patients with PV were examined. BAL samples were obtained and direct smear was prepared and visualized by microscopy after PAS staining. Samples were cultured on antibiotic-containing blood and chocolate agar media. DNA extraction and PCR were performed on positive cultures, and final identification was done by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Drug susceptibility testing was done by microbroth dilution method.

Results: Four positive cultures (3.88%) were found in the samples (n = 103). According to sequence analysis, 2 isolates were identified as Nocardia cyriacigeorgica and 2 as Nocardia otitidiscaviarum and Nocardia cerradoensis. Nocardia cerradoensis was isolated from an invasive brain infection. Isolated bacteria were susceptible to majority of the tested antibiotics, except for 2 strains of Nocardia cyriacigeorgica and Nocardia cerradoensis. This was the first isolation of Nocardia cerradoensis of human infection in Asia. Patients with PV are susceptible to nocardiosis, similar to other immunocompromised patients.

Conclusion: Pemphigus Vulgaris is a severe autoimmune disease which is treated by a high dosage of corticosteroids. Opportunistic infections are one of the greatest challenges of these patients. One of the neglected agents of opportunistic infection in this disorder is Nocardiosis which can cause a high mortality rate in PV patients.

Keywords: Nocardiosis, 16S rRNA, pemphigus vulgaris, immunocompromised, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia cerradoensis.

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VOLUME: 21
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2021
Published on: 31 December, 2019
Page: [78 - 83]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/1871526520666191231144607
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