micro (mi)-RNAs are vital regulators of multiple processes including insulin signaling
pathways and glucose metabolism. Pancreatic β-cells function is dependent on some miRNAs and
their target mRNA, which together form a complex regulative network. Several miRNAs are known to
be directly involved in β-cells functions such as insulin expression and secretion. These small RNAs
may also play significant roles in the fate of β-cells such as proliferation, differentiation, survival and
apoptosis. Among the miRNAs, miR-7, miR-9, miR-375, miR-130 and miR-124 are of particular interest
due to being highly expressed in these cells. Under diabetic conditions, although no specific
miRNA profile has been noticed, the expression of some miRNAs and their target mRNAs are altered
by posttranscriptional mechanisms, exerting diverse signs in the pathobiology of various diabetic
complications. The aim of this review article is to discuss miRNAs involved in the process of stem
cells differentiation into β-cells, resulting in enhanced β-cell functions with respect to diabetic disorders.
This paper will also look into the impact of miRNA expression patterns on in vitro proliferation
and differentiation of β-cells. The efficacy of the computational genomics and biochemical analysis to
link the changes in miRNA expression profiles of stem cell-derived β-cells to therapeutically relevant
outputs will be discussed as well.