Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with little or no coding capacity are associated with
a plethora of cellular functions, participating in various biological processes. Cumulative study of lncRNA provides
explanations to the physiological and pathological processes and new perspectives to the diagnosis, prevention,
and treatment of some clinical diseases. Long non-coding RNA taurine-upregulated gene 1(TUG1) is one of
the first identified lncRNAs associated with human disease, which actively involved in various physiological
processes, including regulating genes at epigenetics, transcription, post-transcription, translation, and posttranslation.
The aim of this review was to explore the molecular mechanism of TUG1 in various types of human
Methods: In this review, we summarized and analyzed the latest findings related to the physiologic and pathophysiological
processes of TUG1 in human diseases. The related studies were retrieved and selected the last six
years of research articles in PubMed with lncRNA and TUG1 as keywords.
Results: TUG1 is a valuable lncRNA that its dysregulated expression and regulating the biological processes
were found in a variety of human diseases. TUG1 is found to exhibit aberrant expression in a variety of malignancies.
Dysregulation of TUG1 has been shown to contribute to proliferation, migration, cell cycle changes,
inhibited apoptosis, and drug resistance of cancer cells, which revealed an oncogenic role for this lncRNA, but
some reports have shown downregulation of TUG1 in lung cancer samples compared with noncancerous samples.
In addition, the molecular and biological functions of TUG1 in physiology and disease (relevant to endocrinology,
metabolism, immunology, neurobiology) have also been highlighted. Finally, we discuss the limitations and
tremendous diagnostic/therapeutic potential of TUG1 in cancer and other diseases.
Conclusion: Long non-coding RNA-TUG1 likely served as useful disease biomarkers or therapy targets and
effectively applied in different kinds of diseases, such as human cancer and cardiovascular diseases.