Background: Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancer in the
developed countries and occurs mainly in postmenopausal women. Angiogenesis is important for cancer
formation as it provides nutrients for growing tumor mass. Most tumors do not show detectable
Homeobox A5 (HOXA5 level), suggesting its potential role as a cancer suppressor. It was demonstrated
that HOXA5 is involved in the progression of various types of cancer and the loss of its expression
correlates with higher pathological grade and poorer outcome.
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate HOXA5 expression at transcriptome and protein levels.
Materials and Methods: The study enrolled 45 women diagnosed with endometrial cancer and 15
without neoplastic changes. The histopathological examination allowed us to divide cancer tissue samples
according to the degree of histological differentiation: G1, 17; G2, 15; G3, 13. The expression of
the HOXA5 protein was determined by immunohistochemistry. Microarray and RT-qPCR techniques
were used to assess HOXA5 expression at the mRNA level.
Results: The reaction to the HOXA5 protein was only visible in glandular cells in G1 endometrial cancer
and was lower compared to the control. In grades 2 and 3, reactions were noted at the limit of the
method’s sensitivity. In addition, reduced HOXA5 expression was observed at the transcriptome level.
Conclusion: HOXA5 may become a potential complementary molecular marker, allowing early detection
of neoplastic changes in the endometrium. It also seems that detection of HOXA5 at the mRNA
and protein levels may be helpful in improving the accuracy of diagnosis and planning effective oncological