Nanoemulgel: A Promising Phase in Drug Delivery

Author(s): Gururaj C. Aithal, Reema Narayan, Usha Y. Nayak*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 26 , Issue 2 , 2020


Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Abstract:

Recently, the delivery of hydrophobic/ poorly water-soluble drugs has been a challenging task. Various strategies have been developed to counter the former along with other prime issues, such as stability, bioavailability etc. However, only few formulations have been successful in addressing the problems and nanoemulgel is a standout among them. Nanoemulgels are appropriate candidates for drug delivery because of their dual character i.e. the presence of an emulsion in the nano scale and a gel base, both combined as a single formulation. The nanoemulsion component of the nanoemulgel conforms protection to the active moiety by preventing the enzymatic degradation and certain reactions like hydrolysis. The gel base attributes thermodynamic stability to the emulsion by increasing the viscosity of the aqueous phase by decreasing the interfacial and surface tension. Nanoemulgels possess rheological characteristics which are suited especially for topical delivery and other forms such as dental delivery with the aid of better patient acceptance. As the globule size is present in the nano form alongside the employment of certain penetration enhancers can increase the effectiveness of the formulation by enhancing the permeability and diffusibility. Reports suggest that certain commercially available topical dosage forms have a low spreading coefficient in comparison with the nanoemulgel thereby focusing on the application of nanoemulgels in the field of dermatology, although paving way for various other fields have not been thoroughly exploited. This comprehensive review highlights the benefits of nanoemulgel as a potential carrier for drug delivery with an overview of few illustrations supporting the cause.

Keywords: Nanoemulgel, nanoemulsion, gelling agents, drug delivery, particle size, bioavailability.

[1]
Patra JK, Das G, Fraceto LF, et al. Nano based drug delivery systems: recent developments and future prospects. J Nanobiotechnology 2018; 16(1): 71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-018-0392-8] [PMID: 30231877]
[2]
Tiwari G, Tiwari R, Sriwastawa B, et al. Drug delivery systems: an updated review. Int J Pharm Investig 2012; 2(1): 2-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2230-973X.96920] [PMID: 23071954]
[3]
Jain KK. Drug delivery systems-an overview.Drug delivery systems. Humana Press 2008; pp. 1-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-210-6]
[4]
Sultana SS, Parveen P, Rekha MS, Deepthi K, Sowjanya C, Devi AS. Emulgel-a novel surrogate approach for transdermal drug delivery system. Ind Am J Pharm Res 2014; 4: 5250-65.
[5]
Joshi B, Singh G, Rana AC, Saini S, Singla V. Emulgel: a comprehensive review on the recent advances in topical drug delivery. Int Res J Pharm 2011; 2(11): 66-70.
[6]
Panwar A, Upadhyay N, Bairagi M, Gujar S, Darwhekar G, Jain D. Emulgel: a review. Asian J Pharm Life Sci 2011; 2231: 4423.
[7]
Kute S, Saudagar R. Emulsified gel a novel approach for delivery of hydrophobic drugs: an overview. J Adv Pharm Educ Res 2013; 3: 368-76.
[8]
Singh RP, Parpani S, Narke R, Chavan R. Emulgel: a recent approach for topical drug delivery system. Asian J Pharm Res Dev 2014; pp. 112-23.
[9]
Jivani MN, Patel CP, Prajapati BG. Nanoemulgel innovative approach for topical gel based formulation. Research and reviews on healthcare. Open Access J 2018; 1(2): 18-21.
[10]
Vyas SP, Khar RK. Controlled drug delivery concepts and advances. Vallabh prakashan 2002; 1: 411-7.
[11]
Gurram AK, Deshpande PB, Kar SS, Nayak UY, Udupa N, Reddy MS. Role of components in the formation of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems. Indian J Pharm Sci 2015; 77(3): 249-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.159596] [PMID: 26180269]
[12]
Benson HA. Transdermal drug delivery: penetration enhancement techniques. Curr Drug Deliv 2005; 2(1): 23-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201052772915] [PMID: 16305405]
[13]
Mortazavi SA, Aboofazeli R. An investigation into the effect of various penetration enhancers on percutaneous absorption of piroxicam. Iran J Pharm Res 2010; 20: 135-40.
[14]
Kumar L, Verma R. In vitro evaluation of topical gel prepared using natural polymer. Int J Drug Deliv 2010; 1: 2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5138/ijdd.2010.0975.0215.02012]
[15]
Lifshitz IM, Slyozov VV. The kinetics of precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions. J Phys Chem Solids 1961; 1(19): 35-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3697(61)90054-3]
[16]
Sharma N, Mishra S, Sharma S, Deshpande RD, Sharma RK. Preparation and optimization of nanoemulsions for targeting drug delivery. Int J Drug Dev Res 2013; 5: 37-48.
[17]
Friberg SE, Corkery RW, Blute IA. Phase inversion temperature (PIT) emulsification process. J Chem Eng Data 2011; 16(56): 4282-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/je101179s]
[18]
Chopra MY, Nayak U. Kumar Gurram A, Sreenivasa Reddy M, Koteshwara KB. Formulation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for oral delivery of valsartan. Curr Nanosci 2014; 1(10): 263-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/15734137113096660107]
[19]
Liu W, Sun D, Li C, Liu Q, Xu J. Formation and stability of paraffin oil-in-water nano-emulsions prepared by the emulsion inversion point method. J Colloid Interface Sci 2006; 303(2): 557-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.07.055] [PMID: 16905141]
[20]
Li Y, Teng Z, Chen P, Song Y, Luo Y, Wang Q. Enhancement of aqueous stability of allyl isothiocyanate using nanoemulsions prepared by an emulsion inversion point method. J Colloid Interface Sci 2015; 438(438): 130-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2014.09.055] [PMID: 25454435]
[21]
Li C, Mei Z, Liu Q, Wang J, Xu J, Sun D. Formation and properties of paraffin wax submicron emulsions prepared by the emulsion inversion point method. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2010; 5(356): 71-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2009.12.036]
[22]
von Corswant C, Thorén P, Engström S. Triglyceride-based microemulsion for intravenous administration of sparingly soluble substances. J Pharm Sci 1998; 87(2): 200-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/js970258w] [PMID: 9519154]
[23]
Ghosh V, Mukherjee A, Chandrasekaran N. Ultrasonic emulsification of food-grade nanoemulsion formulation and evaluation of its bactericidal activity. Ultrason Sonochem 2013; 20(1): 338-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2012.08.010] [PMID: 22954686]
[24]
Yuan Y, Gao Y, Zhao J, Mao L. Characterization and stability evaluation of β-carotene nanoemulsions prepared by high pressure homogenization under various emulsifying conditions. Food Res Int 2008; 1(41): 61-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2007.09.006]
[25]
Mahdi Jafari S, He Y, Bhandari B. Nano-emulsion production by sonication and microfluidization-a comparison. Int J Food Prop 2006; 1(9): 475-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942910600596464]
[26]
Gupta GD, Gaud RS. Release rate of nimesulide from different gellants. Indian J Pharm Sci 1999; 61: 227.
[27]
Jain A, Gautam SP, Gupta Y, Khambete H, Jain S. Development and characterization of ketoconazole emulgel for topical drug delivery. Pharm Sin 2010; 1: 221-31.
[28]
Jain BD, Padsalg A, Patel K, Mokale V. Formulation development and evaluation of fluconazole gel in various polymer bases formulation development and evaluation of fluconazole gel in various polymer bases. Asian J Pharm 2016; 9: 1.
[29]
Yadav SK, Mishra MK, Tiwari A, Shukla A. Emulgel: a new approach for enhanced topical drug delivery. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017; 9: 15-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ijcpr.2017v9i1.16628]
[30]
Singla V, Saini S, Joshi B, Rana AC. Emulgel: a new platform for topical drug delivery. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2012; 3: 485-98.
[31]
Kalia S, Singh P. Emulgel: a novel formulation approach to topical drug delivery. Int. J Universal Pharm. Biosci 2014; 3: 51-62.
[32]
Tadros TF. Future developments in cosmetic formulations. Int J Cosmet Sci 1992; 14(3): 93-111.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2494.1992.tb00045.x] [PMID: 19272094]
[33]
Food and drug administration, hhs. international conference on harmonisation; guidance on Q1A stability testing of new drug substances and products; availability. Notice. Fed Regist 2001; 66(216): 56332-3.
[PMID: 12358038]
[34]
Jones DS, Woolfson AD, Brown AF. Textural, viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties of pharmaceutical gels composed of cellulose polymers. Int J Pharm 1997; 26(151): 223-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-5173(97)04904-1]
[35]
Effionora A, Ramadon D. Formulation and evaluation of gel and emulgel of chili extract (Capsicum frutescens L.) as topical dosage forms. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014; 1(6): 13-6.
[36]
Drais H. Development, characterization and evaluation of the piroxicam nanoemulsion gel as topical dosage form. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016; 5: 308-18.
[37]
Jeengar MK, Rompicharla SV, Shrivastava S, et al. Emu oil based nano-emulgel for topical delivery of curcumin. Int J Pharm 2016; 506(1-2): 222-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.04.052] [PMID: 27109049]
[38]
Choudhary P, Aparna C, Srinivas P. Formulation and evaluation of zaltoprofen nanoemulsion gel. Int J Pharm Technol 2014; 6: 6552-71.
[39]
Mahtab A, Anwar M, Mallick N, Naz Z, Jain GK, Ahmad FJ. Transungual delivery of ketoconazole nanoemulgel for the effective management of onychomycosis. AAPS PharmSciTech 2016; 17(6): 1477-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-016-0488-0] [PMID: 26857516]
[40]
Rambharose S, Kalhapure RS, Govender T. Nanoemulgel using a bicephalous heterolipid as a novel approach to enhance transdermal permeation of tenofovir. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2017; 154(154): 221-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.03.040] [PMID: 28343120]
[41]
Arora R, Aggarawal G, Harikumar S, Kaur K. Nanoemulsion Based Hydrogel for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Ketoprofen. Adv. Pharm 2014; pp. 1-12.
[42]
Azizi M, Esmaeili F, Partoazar A, Ejtemaei Mehr S, Amani A. Efficacy of nano- and microemulsion-based topical gels in delivery of ibuprofen: an in vivo study. J Microencapsul 2017; 34(2): 195-202.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652048.2017.1316324] [PMID: 28378606]
[43]
Aiswarya G. Development, evaluation, and optimization of flurbiprofen nanoemulsions gel using quality by design concept. Asian J Pharm (AJP) 2015; 22(9): 35-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-8398.150035]
[44]
Eid AM, El-Enshasy HA, Aziz R, Elmarzugi NA. Preparation, characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of swietenia macrophylla nanoemulgel. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 2014; 1(5)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7439.1000190]
[45]
Pund S, Pawar S, Gangurde S, Divate D. Transcutaneous delivery of leflunomide nanoemulgel: mechanistic investigation into physicomechanical characteristics, in vitro anti-psoriatic and anti-melanoma activity. Int J Pharm 2015; 487(1-2): 148-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.04.015] [PMID: 25869452]
[46]
Radhika PR, Guruprasad S. Nanoemulsion based emulgel formulation of lipophilic drug for topical delivery. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2016; 9: 210-3.
[47]
Mishra R, Prabhavalkar KS, Bhatt LK. Preparation, optimization, and evaluation of zaltoprofen-loaded microemulsion and microemulsion-based gel for transdermal delivery. J Liposome Res 2016; 26(4): 297-306.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08982104.2015.1120746] [PMID: 26785055]
[48]
Hamed R, Basil M, AlBaraghthi T, Sunoqrot S, Tarawneh O. Nanoemulsion-based gel formulation of diclofenac diethylamine: design, optimization, rheological behavior and in vitro diffusion studies. Pharm Dev Technol 2016; 21(8): 980-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10837450.2015.1086372] [PMID: 26369621]
[49]
Tungadi R, Moo DR, Mozin WR. Characterization and physical stability evaluation of snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus Striatus) powder nanoemulsion. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2017; 1(8): 2720-4.
[50]
Dhawan B, Aggarwal G, Harikumar S. Enhanced transdermal permeability of piroxicam through novel nanoemulgel formulation. Int J Pharm Investig 2014; 4(2): 65-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2230-973X.133053] [PMID: 25006551]
[51]
Pratap SB, Brajesh K, Jain SK, Kausar S. Development and characterization of a nanoemulsion gel formulation for transdermal delivery of carvedilol. Int J Drug Dev and Res 2012; 4: 151-61.
[52]
Begur M, Gowda DV, Srivastava A, Raghundan HV, Manusri N. Enhanced permeability of cyclosporine from a transdermally applied nanoemulgel. Pharm Sin 2015; 6: 69-79.
[53]
Bhattacharya SA, Prajapati BG. Formulation and Optimization of Celecoxib Nanoemulgel. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017; 10: 355-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i8.19510]
[54]
Syamala U. Development & optimization of allyl amine antifungal nanoemulgel using 23 factorial design: for the treatment of tinea pedis. Eur Sci J 2013; 1.
[55]
Setya S, Madaan T, Tariq M, Razdan BK, Talegaonkar S. Appraisal of transdermal water-in-oil nanoemulgel of selegiline HCl for the effective management of parkinson’s disease: pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and biochemical investigations. AAPS PharmSciTech 2018; 19(2): 573-89.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-017-0868-0] [PMID: 28875405]
[56]
Drais HK, Hussein AA. Formulation characterization and evaluation of meloxicam nanoemulgel to be used topically. Iraqi J Pharm Sci 2017; 26: 9-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1234/ijps.v26i1.681]
[57]
Prabu LS, Sharvanan SP, Aravindan S, Bhuvaneswari A, Manikandan V. Nanoemulgel for transdermal delivery of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride: Design, characterization and in-vitro studies. Nov Approaches Drug Des Dev 2017; 1(5)
[58]
Jufri M, Natalia M. Physical stability and antibacterial activity of black cumin oil (Nigella sativa L.) nanoemulsion gel. Int J Pharm Tech Res 2014; 1(6): 1162-9.
[59]
Gaur S, Garg A, Yadav D, Beg M, Gaur K. Nanoemulsion gel as novel oil based colloidal nanocarrier for topical delivery of bifonazole. Indian Res J Pharm Sci 2014; 1: 36-54.
[60]
Kapadiya B, Gohil D, Patel D, et al. Formulation and evaluation of spironolactone loaded emulgel for topical application. J Pharm Sci Biosci Res 2016; 6: 740-52.
[61]
Gadad AP, Magdum AP, Dandagi PM, Bolmal UB, Kamat S. Formulation and characterization of oxiconazole-loaded emulgel for topical application. Indian J Heal Sci Biomed Res 2017; 1; 10: 303.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/kleuhsj.ijhs]
[62]
Verma S, Singh AK, Mukharjee A. Formulation and evaluation of ketoconazole nanoemulgel. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016; 5: 899-911.
[63]
Yadav SA, Poddar SS. Formulation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of nanoemulsion gel for transdermal drug delivery of Nimodipine. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015; 8: 119-24.
[64]
Elmataeeshy ME, Sokar MS, Bahey-El-Din M, Shaker DS. Enhanced transdermal permeability of terbinafine through novel nanoemulgel formulation; development, in vitro and in vivo characterization. Future J of Pharm Sci 2018; 1(4): 18-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fjps.2017.07.003]
[65]
Gadkari PN, Patil PB, Saudagar RB. Formulation, development and evaluation of topical nanoemulgel of tolnaftate. JDDT 2019; 15(9): 208-13.
[66]
Srivastava M, Kohli K, Ali M. Formulation development of novel in situ nanoemulgel (NEG) of ketoprofen for the treatment of periodontitis. Drug Deliv 2016; 23(1): 154-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10717544.2014.907842] [PMID: 24786482]
[67]
Srivastava M, Neupane YR, Kumar P, Kohli K. Nanoemulgel (NEG) of ketoprofen with eugenol as oil phase for the treatment of ligature-induced experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats. Drug Deliv 2016; 23(7): 2228-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10717544.2014.958625] [PMID: 25259423]
[68]
Aithal GC, Nayak UY, Mehta C, et al. localized in situ nanoemulgel drug delivery system of quercetin for periodontitis: Development and computational simulations. Molecules 2018; 23(6): 1363.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061363] [PMID: 29882751]
[69]
Samia O, Hanan R, Kamal T. Carbamazepine mucoadhesive nanoemulgel (MNEG) as brain targeting delivery system via the olfactory mucosa. Drug Deliv 2012; 19(1): 58-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10717544.2011.644349] [PMID: 22191715]
[70]
Singh K, Tatke P, Dhuru S. Neem oil contraceptive formulations. International patent WO2006082596A2. 2006 Aug.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2020
Published on: 04 March, 2020
Page: [279 - 291]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666191226100241
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 24
HTML: 3
EPUB: 1
PRC: 1