Paracrine Interactions Involved in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Differentiation into Chondrocytes

Author(s): Yunchang Zhao, Honghao Liu, Chunjie Zhao, Peng Dang, Haijian Li*, Maryam Farzaneh*

Journal Name: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Volume 15 , Issue 3 , 2020

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Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA), as a degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of joint disorder that causes pain, stiffness, and other symptoms associated with OA. Various genetic, biomechanical, and environmental factors have a relevant role in the development of OA. To date, extensive efforts are currently being made to overcome the poor self-healing capacity of articular cartilage. Despite the pivotal role of chondrocytes, their proliferation and repair capacity after tissue injury are limited. Therefore, the development of new strategies to overcome these constraints is urgently needed. Recent advances in regenerative medicine suggest that pluripotent stem cells are promising stem cell sources for cartilage repair. Pluripotent stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the capacity to differentiate into different types of cells and can self-renew indefinitely. In the past few decades, numerous attempts have been made to regenerate articular cartilage by using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The potential applications of patient-specific iPSCs hold great promise for regenerative medicine and OA treatment. However, there are different culture conditions for the preparation and characterization of human iPSCs-derived chondrocytes (hiChondrocytes). Recent biochemical analyses reported that several paracrine factors such as TGFb, BMPs, WNT, Ihh, and Runx have been shown to be involved in cartilage cell proliferation and differentiation from human iPSCs. In this review, we summarize and discuss the paracrine interactions involved in human iPSCs differentiation into chondrocytes in different cell culture media.

Keywords: Osteoarthritis, pluripotent stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, chondrocytes, paracrine mechanisms, germ layers.

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