Voltammetric Electronic Tongues
Pp. 27-57 (31)
José Manuel Díaz-Cruz, Clara Pérez-Ràfols, Xavier Cetó, Núria Serrano, Cristina Ariño and Miquel Esteban
Electronic noses and electronic tongues are bioinspired devices which mimic
the ability of human noses and human tongues to identify different gases/vapours and
liquids, respectively. Unlike their biologic homologous, electronic noses and tongues
can also be used for quantitative purposes. They consist of an array of non-specific
sensors with different selectivities towards analytes (cross-response) which provide a
complex set of data that, by means of chemometric methods, allows the classification
of samples, the quantification of selected analytes and the estimation of global sample
properties. Among such devices, voltammetric electronic tongues deserve special
attention, because they can generate a larger quantity of information. This means more
power to discriminate similar samples and analytes with close responses, but also the
need of more sophisticated chemometric methods for the analysis and interpretation of
the data. In the last years, the popularisation of commercial screen-printed electrodes
has encouraged the design of voltammetric electronic tongues based on such screenprinted
devices modified with a large variety of chemical substances, biomolecules and
nanomaterials. The versatility of voltammetric electronic tongues has stimulated the
development of many applications, mainly in the fields of food analysis and
environmental analysis, which are reviewed in this chapter.
Artificial Neural Networks, Electronic Tongues, Linear Discriminant
Analysis, Multivariate Calibration, Partial Least Squares Calibration, Principal
Component Analysis, Sensor Arrays, Voltammetry.
Department of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Chemistry. Faculty of Chemistry. University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.