Cancer Cell-derived Secretory Factors in Breast Cancer-associated Lung Metastasis: Their Mechanism and Future Prospects

Author(s): Tabinda Urooj*, Bushra Wasim, Shamim Mushtaq, Syed Nudrat Nawaid Shah, Muzna Shah.

Journal Name: Current Cancer Drug Targets

Volume 20 , Issue 3 , 2020

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Abstract:

In Breast cancer, Lung is the second most common site of metastasis after the bone. Various factors are responsible for Lung metastasis occurring secondary to Breast cancer. Cancer cellderived secretory factors are commonly known as ‘Cancer Secretomes’. They exhibit a prompt role in the mechanism of Breast cancer lung metastasis. They are also major constituents of hostassociated tumor microenvironment. Through cross-talk between cancer cells and the extracellular matrix components, cancer cell-derived extracellular matrix components (CCECs) such as hyaluronan, collagens, laminin and fibronectin cause ECM remodeling at the primary site (breast) of cancer. However, at the secondary site (lung), tenascin C, periostin and lysyl oxidase, along with pro-metastatic molecules Coco and GALNT14, contribute to the formation of pre-metastatic niche (PMN) by promoting ECM remodeling and lung metastatic cells colonization. Cancer cell-derived secretory factors by inducing cancer cell proliferation at the primary site, their invasion through the tissues and vessels and early colonization of metastatic cells in the PMN, potentiate the mechanism of Lung metastasis in Breast cancer.

On the basis of biochemical structure, these secretory factors are broadly classified into proteins and non-proteins. This is the first review that has highlighted the role of cancer cell-derived secretory factors in Breast cancer Lung metastasis (BCLM). It also enumerates various researches that have been conducted to date in breast cancer cell lines and animal models that depict the prompt role of various types of cancer cell-derived secretory factors involved in the process of Breast cancer lung metastasis. In the future, by therapeutically targeting these cancer driven molecules, this specific type of organ-tropic metastasis in breast cancer can be successfully treated.

Keywords: Breast cancer lung metastasis, secretory factors, pre-metastatic niche, tumor micro-environment, cell lines and animal models.

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VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2020
Page: [168 - 186]
Pages: 19
DOI: 10.2174/1568009620666191220151856

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