The Possible Role of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Bacteria in Initiation and Exacerbation of Celiac Disease; A Comprehensive Review

Author(s): Taher Azimi*, Ahmad Nasser, Aref Shariati, Seyedeh M.J. Shiadeh, Hossein Safari, Mahmood Alizade-Sani, Ali Taghipour, Amin Dehghan

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 21 , Issue 6 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Celiac Disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy, generally of the proximal intestine, that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals triggered by the ingestion of gluten. The incidence and frequency of CD are increasing, and it is predicted that CD affects approximately 1% of the people worldwide. The common clinical manifestations of CD are divided in two sections, including classic and non-classic symptoms that can be created in childhood and adulthood. The relationship between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria with CD is complex and multidirectional. In previous published studies, results demonstrated the triggering impact of bacteria, viruses, and parasites on initiation and development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Different studies revealed the inducing effect of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria on CD. However, increasing evidence proposes that some of these microorganisms can also play several positive roles in CD process. Although information of the pathogenesis of the CD is quickly expanding, the possible role of bacteria needs further examination. In conclusion, with respect to the possible correlation between different bacteria in CD, the current review-based study aims to discuss the possible relationship between CD and pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria and to show various and significant aspects of mechanisms involved in the CD process.

Keywords: Celiac disease, gluten, bacterial infection, dysbiosis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), dysbiosis.

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