The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a multifunctional monolayer located at the back of
the eye required for the survival and function of the light-sensing photoreceptors. In Age-related Macular
Degeneration (AMD), the loss of RPE cells leads to photoreceptor death and permanent blindness.
RPE cell transplantation aims to halt or reverse vision loss by preventing the death of photoreceptor
cells and is considered one of the most viable applications of stem cell therapy in the field of regenerative
medicine. Proof-of-concept of RPE cell transplantation for treating retinal degenerative disease,
such as AMD, has long been established in animal models and humans using primary RPE cells, while
recent research has focused on the transplantation of RPE cells derived from human pluripotent stem
cells (hPSC). Early results from clinical trials indicate that transplantation of hPSC-derived RPE cells
is safe and can improve vision in AMD patients. Current hPSC-RPE cell production protocols used in
clinical trials are nevertheless inefficient. Treatment of large numbers of AMD patients using stem cellderived
products may be dependent on the ability to generate functional cells from multiple hPSC lines
using robust and clinically-compliant methods. Transplantation outcomes may be improved by delivering
RPE cells on a thin porous membrane for better integration into the retina, and by manipulation of
the outcome through control of immune rejection and inflammatory responses.