Melanoma: Prognostic Factors and Factors Predictive of Response to Therapy

Author(s): Martina Strudel, Lucia Festino*, Vito Vanella, Massimiliano Beretta, Francesco M. Marincola, Paolo A. Ascierto

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 27 , Issue 17 , 2020

  Journal Home
Translate in Chinese
Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Abstract:

Background: A better understanding of prognostic factors and biomarkers that predict response to treatment is required in order to further improve survival rates in patients with melanoma.

Prognostic Factors: The most important histopathological factors prognostic of worse outcomes in melanoma are sentinel lymph node involvement, increased tumor thickness, ulceration and higher mitotic rate. Poorer survival may also be related to several clinical factors, including male gender, older age, axial location of the melanoma, elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and S100B.

Predictive Biomarkers: Several biomarkers have been investigated as being predictive of response to melanoma therapies. For anti-Programmed Death-1(PD-1)/Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors, PD-L1 tumor expression was initially proposed to have a predictive role in response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment. However, patients without PD-L1 expression also have a survival benefit with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, meaning it cannot be used alone to select patients for treatment, in order to affirm that it could be considered a correlative, but not a predictive marker. A range of other factors have shown an association with treatment outcomes and offer potential as predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy, including immune infiltration, chemokine signatures, and tumor mutational load. However, none of these have been clinically validated as a factor for patient selection. For combined targeted therapy (BRAF and MEK inhibition), lactate dehydrogenase level and tumor burden seem to have a role in patient outcomes.

Conclusion: With increasing knowledge, the understanding of melanoma stage-specific prognostic features should further improve. Moreover, ongoing trials should provide increasing evidence on the best use of biomarkers to help select the most appropriate patients for tailored treatment with immunotherapies and targeted therapies.

Keywords: Biomarkers, BRAF inhibitors, immunotherapy, MEK inhibitors, melanoma, PD-1, PD-L1, prognostic factors.

[1]
MacKie, R.M.; Hauschild, A.; Eggermont, A.M. Epidemiology of invasive cutaneous melanoma. Ann. Oncol., 2009, 20(Suppl. 6), vi1-vi7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdp252] [PMID: 19617292]
[2]
Elwood, J.M.; Gallagher, R.P. Body site distribution of cutaneous malignant melanoma in relationship to patterns of sun exposure. Int. J. Cancer, 1998, 78(3), 276-280.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19981029)78:3<276:AID-IJC2>3.0.CO;2-S] [PMID: 9766557]
[3]
Thirlwell, C.; Nathan, P. Melanoma--part 2: management. BMJ, 2008, 337, a2488.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a2488] [PMID: 19047194]
[4]
McGovern, V.J.; Mihm, M.C., Jr.; Bailly, C.; Booth, J.C.; Clark, W.H., Jr.; Cochran, A.J.; Hardy, E.G.; Hicks, J.D.; Levene, A.; Lewis, M.G.; Little, J.H.; Milton, G.W. Theclassification of malignant melanoma and its histologic reporting. Cancer, 1973, 32(6), 1446-1457 .http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(197312)32:6<1446:: AID-CNCR2820320623>3.0.CO;2-8
[PMID: 4757934]
[5]
Boland, G.M.; Gershenwald, J.E. Principles of melanoma staging. Cancer Treat. Res., 2016, 167, 131-148.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22539-5_5] [PMID: 26601861]
[6]
Breslow, A. Thickness, cross-sectional areas and depth of invasion in the prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. Ann. Surg., 1970, 172(5), 902-908.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000658-197011000-00017] [PMID: 5477666]
[7]
Barnhill, R.L.; Fine, J.A.; Roush, G.C.; Berwick, M. Predicting five-year outcome for patients with cutaneous melanoma in a population-based study. Cancer, 1996, 78(3), 427-432.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19960801)78:3<427:AID-CNCR8>3.0.CO;2-G] [PMID: 8697387]
[8]
Balch, C.M.; Buzaid, A.C.; Atkins, M.B.; Cascinelli, N.; Coit, D.G.; Fleming, I.D.; Houghton, A., Jr; Kirkwood, J.M.; Mihm, M.F.; Morton, D.L.; Reintgen, D.; Ross, M.I.; Sober, A.; Soong, S.J.; Thompson, J.A.; Thompson, J.F.; Gershenwald, J.E.; McMasters, K.M. A new American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous melanoma. Cancer, 2000, 88(6), 1484-1491.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1484:AID-CNCR29>3.0.CO;2-D] [PMID: 10717634]
[9]
Gershenwald, J.E.; Scolyer, R.A.; Hess, K.R.; Sondak, V.K.; Long, G.V.; Ross, M.I.; Lazar, A.J.; Faries, M.B.; Kirkwood, J.M.; McArthur, G.A.; Haydu, L.E.; Eggermont, A.M.M.; Flaherty, K.T.; Balch, C.M.; Thompson, J.F. For members of the American joint committee on cancer melanoma expert panel and the international melanoma database and discovery platform.. Melanoma staging: evidence-based changes in the american joint committee on cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual. CA Cancer J. Clin., 2017, 67(6), 472-492.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.21409] [PMID: 29028110]
[10]
In ’t Hout, F.E.; Haydu, L.E.; Murali, R.; Bonenkamp, J.J.; Thompson, J.F.; Scolyer, R.A. Prognostic importance of the extent of ulceration in patients with clinically localized cutaneous melanoma. Ann. Surg., 2012, 255(6), 1165-1170.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0b013e31824c4b0b] [PMID: 22566014]
[11]
Balch, C.M.; Wilkerson, J.A.; Murad, T.M.; Soong, S.J.; Ingalls, A.L.; Maddox, W.A. The prognostic significance of ulceration of cutaneous melanoma. Cancer, 1980, 45(12), 3012-3017.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19800615)45:12<3012:AID-CNCR2820451223>3.0.CO;2-O] [PMID: 7388745]
[12]
Day, C.L.J., Jr; Lew, R.A.; Harrist, T.J. Malignant melanoma prognostic factors 4: ulceration width. J. Dermatol. Surg. Oncol., 1984, 10(1), 23-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4725.1984.tb01167.x] [PMID: 6690533]
[13]
Day, C.L.J., Jr; Harrist, T.J.; Gorstein, F.; Sober, A.J.; Lew, R.A.; Friedman, R.J.; Pasternack, B.S.; Kopf, A.W.; Fitzpatrick, T.B.; Mihm, M.C., Jr Malignant melanoma. Prognostic significance of “microscopic satellites” in the reticular dermis and subcutaneous fat. Ann. Surg., 1981, 194(1), 108-112.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000658-198107000-00019] [PMID: 7247529]
[14]
Scolyer, R.A.; Shaw, H.M.; Thompson, J.F.; Li, L.X.; Colman, M.H.; Lo, S.K.; McCarthy, S.W.; Palmer, A.A.; Nicoll, K.D.; Dutta, B.; Slobedman, E.; Watson, G.F.; Stretch, J.R. Interobserver reproducibility of histopathologic prognostic variables in primary cutaneous melanomas. Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 2003, 27(12), 1571-1576.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000478-200312000-00011] [PMID: 14657718]
[15]
Azzola, M.F.; Shaw, H.M.; Thompson, J.F.; Soong, S.J.; Scolyer, R.A.; Watson, G.F.; Colman, M.H.; Zhang, Y. Tumor mitotic rate is a more powerful prognostic indicator than ulceration in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma: an analysis of 3661 patients from a single center. Cancer, 2003, 97(6), 1488-1498.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.11196] [PMID: 12627514]
[16]
Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, M.L.; Schmidt, H.; Christensen, I.J.; Damsgaard, T.E.; Møller, H.J.; Bastholt, L.; Nørgaard, P.H.; Steiniche, T. Prognostic stratification of ulcerated melanoma: not only the extent matters. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 2014, 142(6), 845-856.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1309/AJCPW56PHGLFTKZC] [PMID: 25389339]
[17]
Elder, D.E.; Gimotty, P.A.; Guerry, D. Cutaneous melanoma: estimating survival and recurrence risk based on histopathologic features. Dermatol. Ther., 2005, 18(5), 369-385.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8019.2005.00044.x] [PMID: 16297012]
[18]
Gershenwald, J.E.; Soong, S.J.; Balch, C.M. American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Melanoma Staging Committee. 2010 TNM staging system for cutaneous melanoma and beyond. Ann. Surg. Oncol., 2010, 17(6), 1475-1477.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-010-0986-3] [PMID: 20300965]
[19]
Clark, W.H.J., Jr; Elder, D.E.; Guerry, D., IV; Braitman, L.E.; Trock, B.J.; Schultz, D.; Synnestvedt, M.; Halpern, A.C. Model predicting survival in stage I melanoma based on tumor progression. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1989, 81(24), 1893-1904.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/81.24.1893] [PMID: 2593166]
[20]
Garbe, C.; Büttner, P.; Bertz, J.; Burg, G.; d’Hoedt, B.; Drepper, H.; Guggenmoos-Holzmann, I.; Lechner, W.; Lippold, A.; Orfanos, C.E.; Peters, A.; Rassner, G.; Stadler, R.; Stroebel, W. Primary cutaneous melanoma. Prognostic classification of anatomic location. Cancer, 1995, 75(10), 2492-2498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19950515)75:10< 2492::AID-CNCR2820751015>3.0.CO;2-W
[PMID: 7736393]
[21]
Mandalà, M.; Galli, F.; Cattaneo, L.; Merelli, B.; Rulli, E.; Ribero, S.; Quaglino, P.; De Giorgi, V.; Pigozzo, J.; Sileni, V.C.; Chirco, A.; Ferrucci, P.F.; Occelli, M.; Imberti, G.; Piazzalunga, D.; Massi, D.; Tondini, C.; Queirolo, P. Italian melanoma intergroup. mitotic rate correlates with sentinel lymph node status and outcome in cutaneous melanoma greater than 1 millimeter in thickness: a multi-institutional study of 1524 cases. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 2017, 76(2), 264-273. e2
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2016.08.066] [PMID: 27847125]
[22]
Breslow, A. Problems in the measurement of tumor thickness and level of invasion in cutaneous melanoma. Human Pathol., 1977, 8, 1-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0046-8177(77)80061-0] [PMID: 844850]
[23]
Ollila, D.W.; Essner, R.; Wanek, L.A.; Morton, D.L. Surgical resection for melanoma metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract. Arch. Surg., 1996, 131(9), 975-979. 979-980.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1996.01430210073013] [PMID: 8790168]
[24]
Weide, B.; Elsässer, M.; Büttner, P.; Pflugfelder, A.; Leiter, U.; Eigentler, T.K.; Bauer, J.; Witte, M.; Meier, F.; Garbe, C. Serum markers lactate dehydrogenase and S100B predict independently disease outcome in melanoma patients with distant metastasis. Br. J. Cancer, 2012, 107(3), 422-428.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2012.306] [PMID: 22782342]
[25]
Eigentler, T.K.; Caroli, U.M.; Radny, P.; Garbe, C. Palliative therapy of disseminated malignant melanoma: a systematic review of 41 randomised clinical trials. Lancet Oncol., 2003, 4(12), 748-759.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(03)01280-4] [PMID: 14662431]
[26]
Egberts, F.; Kotthoff, E.M.; Gerdes, S.; Egberts, J.H.; Weichenthal, M.; Hauschild, A. Comparative study of YKL-40, S-100B and LDH as monitoring tools for Stage IV melanoma. Eur. J. Cancer, 2012, 48(5), 695-702.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2011.08.007] [PMID: 21917447]
[27]
Egberts, F.; Pollex, A.; Egberts, J.H.; Kaehler, K.C.; Weichenthal, M.; Hauschild, A. Long-term survival analysis in metastatic melanoma: serum S100B is an independent prognostic marker and superior to LDH. Onkologie, 2008, 31(7), 380-384.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000135492] [PMID: 18596385]
[28]
Balch, C.M.; Buzaid, A.C.; Soong, S.J.; Atkins, M.B.; Cascinelli, N.; Coit, D.G.; Fleming, I.D.; Gershenwald, J.E.; Houghton, A., Jr; Kirkwood, J.M.; McMasters, K.M.; Mihm, M.F.; Morton, D.L.; Reintgen, D.S.; Ross, M.I.; Sober, A.; Thompson, J.A.; Thompson, J.F. Final version of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous melanoma. J. Clin. Oncol., 2001, 19(16), 3635-3648.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2001.19.16.3635] [PMID: 11504745]
[29]
Eton, O.; Legha, S.S.; Moon, T.E.; Buzaid, A.C.; Papadopoulos, N.E.; Plager, C.; Burgess, A.M.; Bedikian, A.Y.; Ring, S.; Dong, Q.; Glassman, A.B.; Balch, C.M.; Benjamin, R.S. Prognostic factors for survival of patients treated systemically for disseminated melanoma. J. Clin. Oncol., 1998, 16(3), 1103-1111.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.1998.16.3.1103] [PMID: 9508197]
[30]
Manola, J.; Atkins, M.; Ibrahim, J.; Kirkwood, J. Prognostic factors in metastatic melanoma: a pooled analysis of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trials. J. Clin. Oncol., 2000, 18(22), 3782-3793.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2000.18.22.3782] [PMID: 11078491]
[31]
Sirott, M.N.; Bajorin, D.F.; Wong, G.Y.; Tao, Y.; Chapman, P.B.; Templeton, M.A.; Houghton, A.N. Prognostic factors in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. A multivariate analysis. Cancer, 1993, 72(10), 3091-3098.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19931115)72:10<3091:AID-CNCR2820721034>3.0.CO;2-V] [PMID: 8221576]
[32]
Schatton, T.; Scolyer, R.A.; Thompson, J.F.; Mihm, M.C., Jr Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and their significance in melanoma prognosis. Methods Mol. Biol., 2014, 1102, 287-324.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-727-3_16] [PMID: 24258985]
[33]
Azimi, F.; Scolyer, R.A.; Rumcheva, P.; Moncrieff, M.; Murali, R.; McCarthy, S.W.; Saw, R.P.; Thompson, J.F. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte grade is an independent predictor of sentinel lymph node status and survival in patients with cutaneous melanoma. J. Clin. Oncol., 2012, 30(21), 2678-2683.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.37.8539] [PMID: 22711850]
[34]
Taylor, R.C.; Patel, A.; Panageas, K.S.; Busam, K.J.; Brady, M.S. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes predict sentinel lymph node positivity in patients with cutaneous melanoma. J. Clin. Oncol., 2007, 25(7), 869-875.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.08.9755] [PMID: 17327608]
[35]
Piras, F.; Colombari, R.; Minerba, L.; Murtas, D.; Floris, C.; Maxia, C.; Corbu, A.; Perra, M.T.; Sirigu, P. The predictive value of CD8, CD4, CD68, and human leukocyte antigen-D-related cells in the prognosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma with vertical growth phase. Cancer, 2005, 140(6), 1246-1254.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.21283] [PMID: 16078259]
[36]
Tumeh, P.C.; Harview, C.L.; Yearley, J.H.; Shintaku, I.P.; Taylor, E.J.; Robert, L.; Chmielowski, B.; Spasic, M.; Henry, G.; Ciobanu, V.; West, A.N.; Carmona, M.; Kivork, C.; Seja, E.; Cherry, G.; Gutierrez, A.J.; Grogan, T.R.; Mateus, C.; Tomasic, G.; Glaspy, J.A.; Emerson, R.O.; Robins, H.; Pierce, R.H.; Elashoff, D.A.; Robert, C.; Ribas, A. PD-1 blockade induces responses by inhibiting adaptive immune resistance. Nature, 2014, 515(7528), 568-571.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13954] [PMID: 25428505]
[37]
Massi, D.; Brusa, D.; Merelli, B.; Falcone, C.; Xue, G.; Carobbio, A.; Nassini, R.; Baroni, G.; Tamborini, E.; Cattaneo, L.; Audrito, V.; Deaglio, S.; Mandalà, M. The status of PD-L1 and tumor-infiltrating immune cells predict resistance and poor prognosis in BRAFi-treated melanoma patients harboring mutant BRAFV600. Ann. Oncol., 2015, 26(9), 1980-1987.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdv255] [PMID: 26037795]
[38]
Massi, D.; Romano, E.; Rulli, E.; Merelli, B.; Nassini, R.; De Logu, F.; Bieche, I.; Baroni, G.; Cattaneo, L.; Xue, G.; Mandalà, M. Baseline β-catenin, programmed death-ligand 1 expression and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes predict response and poor prognosis in BRAF inhibitor-treated melanoma patients. Eur. J. Cancer, 2017, 78, 70-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2017.03.012] [PMID: 28412591]
[39]
Pasquali, S.; Montesco, M.C.; Ginanneschi, C.; Baroni, G.; Miracco, C.; Urso, C.; Mele, F.; Lombardi, A.R.; Quaglino, P.; Cattaneo, L.; Staibano, S.; Botti, G.; Visca, P.; Zannoni, M.; Soda, G.; Corti, B.; Pilloni, L.; Anselmi, L.; Lissia, A.; Vannucchi, M.; Manieli, C.; Massi, D. Lymphatic and blood vasculature in primary cutaneous melanomas of the scalp and neck. Head Neck, 2015, 37(11), 1596-1602.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.23801] [PMID: 24931916]
[40]
Storr, S.J.; Safuan, S.; Mitra, A.; Elliott, F.; Walker, C.; Vasko, M.J.; Ho, B.; Cook, M.; Mohammed, R.A.; Patel, P.M.; Ellis, I.O.; Newton-Bishop, J.A.; Martin, S.G. Objective assessment of blood and lymphatic vessel invasion and association with macrophage infiltration in cutaneous melanoma. Mod. Pathol., 2012, 25(4), 493-504.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2011.182] [PMID: 22080065]
[41]
Tas, F.; Erturk, K. Neurotropism as a prognostic factor in cutaneous melanoma patients. Neoplasma, 2018, 65(2), 304-308.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/neo_2018_170426N312] [PMID: 29534593]
[42]
Francischetto, T.; Spector, N.; Neto Rezende, J.F.; de Azevedo Antunes, M.; de Oliveira Romano, S.; Small, I.A.; Gil Ferreira, C. Influence of sentinel lymph node tumor burden on survival in melanoma. Ann. Surg. Oncol., 2010, 17(4), 1152-1158.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-009-0884-8] [PMID: 20087785]
[43]
Frankel, T.L.; Griffith, K.A.; Lowe, L.; Wong, S.L.; Bichakjian, C.K.; Chang, A.E.; Cimmino, V.M.; Bradford, C.R.; Rees, R.S.; Johnson, T.M.; Sabel, M.S. Do micromorphometric features of metastatic deposits within sentinel nodes predict nonsentinel lymph node involvement in melanoma? Ann. Surg. Oncol., 2008, 15(9), 2403-2411.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-008-0024-x] [PMID: 18626721]
[44]
Gershenwald, J.E.; Andtbacka, R.H.; Prieto, V.G.; Johnson, M.M.; Diwan, A.H.; Lee, J.E.; Mansfield, P.F.; Cormier, J.N.; Schacherer, C.W.; Ross, M.I. Microscopic tumor burden in sentinel lymph nodes predicts synchronous nonsentinel lymph node involvement in patients with melanoma. J. Clin. Oncol., 2008, 26(26), 4296-4303.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.15.4179] [PMID: 18606982]
[45]
Ranieri, J.M.; Wagner, J.D.; Azuaje, R.; Davidson, D.; Wenck, S.; Fyffe, J.; Coleman, J.J., III Prognostic importance of lymph node tumor burden in melanoma patients staged by sentinel node biopsy. Ann. Surg. Oncol., 2002, 9, 975-981.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02574515] [PMID: 12464589]
[46]
Scolyer, R.A.; Li, L.X.; McCarthy, S.W.; Shaw, H.M.; Stretch, J.R.; Sharma, R.; Thompson, J.F. Micromorphometric features of positive sentinel lymph nodes predict involvement of nonsentinel nodes in patients with melanoma. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 2004, 122(4), 532-539.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1309/TDWJTR15TDM1TG7Q] [PMID: 15487450]
[47]
Crookes, T.R.; Scolyer, R.A.; Lo, S.; Drummond, M.; Spillane, A.J. Extra-nodal spread is associated with recurrence and poor survival in stage III cutaneous melanoma patients. Ann. Surg. Oncol., 2017, 24(5), 1378-1385.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-016-5723-0] [PMID: 28130620]
[48]
Leiter, U.; Meier, F.; Schittek, B.; Garbe, C. The natural course of cutaneous melanoma. J. Surg. Oncol., 2004, 86(4), 172-178.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.20079] [PMID: 15221923]
[49]
Bernengo, M.G.; Reali, U.M.; Doveil, G.C.; Cappello, N.; Lisa, F.; Moretti, S. BANS: a discussion of the problem. Melanoma Res., 1992, 2(3), 157-162.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008390-199209000-00003] [PMID: 1450669]
[50]
Chao, C.; Martin, R.C., II; Ross, M.I.; Reintgen, D.S.; Edwards, M.J.; Noyes, R.D.; Hagendoorn, L.J.; Stromberg, A.J.; McMasters, K.M. Correlation between prognostic factors and increasing age in melanoma. Ann. Surg. Oncol., 2004, 11(3), 259-264.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/ASO.2004.04.015] [PMID: 14993020]
[51]
Lasithiotakis, K.; Leiter, U.; Meier, F.; Eigentler, T.; Metzler, G.; Moehrle, M.; Breuninger, H.; Garbe, C. Age and gender are significant independent predictors of survival in primary cutaneous melanoma. Cancer, 2008, 112(8), 1795-1804.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.23359] [PMID: 18306371]
[52]
Balch, C.M.; Soong, S.J.; Gershenwald, J.E.; Thompson, J.F.; Reintgen, D.S.; Cascinelli, N.; Urist, M.; McMasters, K.M.; Ross, M.I.; Kirkwood, J.M.; Atkins, M.B.; Thompson, J.A.; Coit, D.G.; Byrd, D.; Desmond, R.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, P.Y.; Lyman, G.H.; Morabito, A. Prognostic factors analysis of 17,600 melanoma patients: validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system. J. Clin. Oncol., 2001, 19(16), 3622-3634.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2001.19.16.3622] [PMID: 11504744]
[53]
Malaguarnera, L.; Ferlito, L.; Di Mauro, S.; Imbesi, R.M.; Scalia, G.; Malaguarnera, M. Immunosenescence and cancer: a review. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr., 2001, 32(2), 77-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4943(01)00087-5] [PMID: 11313099]
[54]
Nomellini, V.; Gomez, C.R.; Kovacs, E.J. Aging and impairment of innate immunity. Contrib. Microbiol., 2008, 15, 188-205.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000136358] [PMID: 18511862]
[55]
Joosse, A.; De Vries, E.; van Eijck, C.H.; Eggermont, A.M.; Nijsten, T.; Coebergh, J.W. Reactive oxygen species and melanoma: an explanation for gender differences in survival? Pigment Cell Melanoma Res., 2010, 23(3), 352-364.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-148X.2010.00694.x] [PMID: 20218981]
[56]
Miller, J.G.; Mac Neil, S. Gender and cutaneous melanoma. Br. J. Dermatol., 1997, 136(5), 657-665.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1997.tb03648.x] [PMID: 9205495]
[57]
Richardson, B.; Price, A.; Wagner, M.; Williams, V.; Lorigan, P.; Browne, S.; Miller, J.G.; Mac Neil, S. Investigation of female survival benefit in metastatic melanoma. Br. J. Cancer, 1999, 80(12), 2025-2033.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6690637] [PMID: 10471056]
[58]
Kölmel, K.F.; Kulle, B.; Lippold, A.; Seebacher, C. Survival probabilities and hazard functions of malignant melanoma in Germany 1972-1996, an analysis of 10433 patients. Evolution of gender differences and malignancy. Eur. J. Cancer, 2002, 38(10), 1388-1394.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(02)00104-1] [PMID: 12091071]
[59]
Scoggins, C.R.; Ross, M.I.; Reintgen, D.S.; Noyes, R.D.; Goydos, J.S.; Beitsch, P.D.; Urist, M.M.; Ariyan, S.; Sussman, J.J.; Edwards, M.J.; Chagpar, A.B.; Martin, R.C.G.; Stromberg, A.J.; Hagendoorn, L.; McMasters, K.M. Sunbelt Melanoma Trial. Gender-related differences in outcome for melanoma patients. Ann. Surg., 2006, 243(5), 693-698.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.sla.0000216771.81362.6b] [PMID: 16633005]
[60]
Aase, A.; Bentham, G. Gender, geography and socio-economic status in the diffusion of malignant melanoma risk. Soc. Sci. Med., 1996, 42(12), 1621-1637.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(95)00318-5] [PMID: 8783425]
[61]
Lasithiotakis, K.G.; Leiter, U.; Eigentler, T.; Breuninger, H.; Metzler, G.; Meier, F.; Garbe, C. Improvement of overall survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma in Germany, 1976-2001: which factors contributed? Cancer, 2007, 109(6), 1174-1182.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22511] [PMID: 17265520]
[62]
Quatresooz, P.; Uhoda, I.; Fumal, I.; Piérard-Franchimont, C.; Piérard, G.E. Revisiting the gender-linked melanoma burden. Dermatology (Basel), 2004, 209(3), 197-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000079889] [PMID: 15459532]
[63]
Mervic, L.; Leiter, U.; Meier, F.; Eigentler, T.; Forschner, A.; Metzler, G.; Bartenjev, I.; Büttner, P.; Garbe, C. Sex differences in survival of cutaneous melanoma are age dependent: an analysis of 7338 patients. Melanoma Res., 2011, 21(3), 244-252.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0b013e32834577c8] [PMID: 21540649]
[64]
Bedikian, A.Y.; Johnson, M.M.; Warneke, C.L.; Papadopoulos, N.E.; Kim, K.; Hwu, W.J.; McIntyre, S.; Hwu, P. Prognostic factors that determine the long-term survival of patients with unresectable metastatic melanoma. Cancer Invest., 2008, 26(6), 624-633.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07357900802027073] [PMID: 18584354]
[65]
Keilholz, U.; Martus, P.; Punt, C.J.; Kruit, W.; Mooser, G.; Schadendorf, D.; Liénard, D.; Dummer, R.; Koller, J.; Voit, C.; Eggermont, A.M. Prognostic factors for survival and factors associated with long-term remission in patients with advanced melanoma receiving cytokine-based treatments: second analysis of a randomised EORTC Melanoma Group trial comparing interferon-alpha2a (IFNalpha) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) with or without cisplatin. Eur. J. Cancer, 2002, 38(11), 1501-1511.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(02)00123-5] [PMID: 12110497]
[66]
Long, GV; Grob, J.J.; Davies, MA; Lane, S; Legenne, P; Flaherty, KT Baseline and postbaseline characteristics associated with treatment benefit across dabrafenib and trametinib registration pooled data, 2015.
[67]
Patel, S.P.; Kurzrock, R. PD-L1 Expression as a predictive biomarker in cancer immunotherapy. Mol. Cancer Ther., 2015, 14(4), 847-856.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-14-0983] [PMID: 25695955]
[68]
Brahmer, J.; Reckamp, K.L.; Baas, P.; Crinò, L.; Eberhardt, W.E.E.; Poddubskaya, E.; Antonia, S.; Pluzanski, A.; Vokes, E.E.; Holgado, E.; Waterhouse, D.; Ready, N.; Gainor, J.; Arén Frontera, O.; Havel, L.; Steins, M.; Garassino, M.C.; Aerts, J.G.; Domine, M.; Paz-Ares, L.; Reck, M.; Baudelet, C.; Harbison, C.T.; Lestini, B.; Spigel, D.R. Nivolumab versus docetaxel in advanced squamous-cell non–small-cell lung cancer. N. Engl. J. Med., 2015, 373(2), 123-135.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1504627] [PMID: 26028407]
[69]
Suarez, E.R.; Chang, K.; Sun, J.; Sui, J.; Freeman, G.J.; Signoretti, S.; Zhu, Q.; Marasco, W.A. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells secreting anti-PD-L1 antibodies more effectively regress renal cell carcinoma in a humanized mouse model. Oncotarget, 2016, 7(23), 34341-34355.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9114] [PMID: 27145284]
[70]
Topalian, S.L.; Taube, J.M.; Anders, R.A.; Pardoll, D.M. Mechanism-driven biomarkers to guide immune checkpoint blockade in cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer, 2016, 16(5), 275-287.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrc.2016.36] [PMID: 27079802]
[71]
Brahmer, J.R.; Drake, C.G.; Wollner, I.; Powderly, J.D.; Picus, J.; Sharfman, W.H.; Stankevich, E.; Pons, A.; Salay, T.M.; McMiller, T.L.; Gilson, M.M.; Wang, C.; Selby, M.; Taube, J.M.; Anders, R.; Chen, L.; Korman, A.J.; Pardoll, D.M.; Lowy, I.; Topalian, S.L. Phase I study of single-agent anti-programmed death-1 (MDX-1106) in refractory solid tumors: safety, clinical activity, pharmacodynamics, and immunologic correlates. J. Clin. Oncol., 2010, 28(19), 3167-3175.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.26.7609] [PMID: 20516446]
[72]
Robert, C.; Long, G.V.; Brady, B.; Dutriaux, C.; Maio, M.; Mortier, L.; Hassel, J.C.; Rutkowski, P.; McNeil, C.; Kalinka-Warzocha, E.; Savage, K.J.; Hernberg, M.M.; Lebbé, C.; Charles, J.; Mihalcioiu, C.; Chiarion-Sileni, V.; Mauch, C.; Cognetti, F.; Arance, A.; Schmidt, H.; Schadendorf, D.; Gogas, H.; Lundgren-Eriksson, L.; Horak, C.; Sharkey, B.; Waxman, I.M.; Atkinson, V.; Ascierto, P.A. Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation. N. Engl. J. Med., 2015, 372(4), 320-330.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1412082] [PMID: 25399552]
[73]
Daud, A.; Blank, C.U.; Robert, C.; Puzanov, I.; Richtig, E.; Margolin, K.A.; O'Day, S.; Nyakas, M.; Lutzky, J.; Tarhini, A.A.; McWhirter, E.; Caglevic, C.; Mohr, P.; Millward, M.; Butler, M.O.; Zhou, H.; Emancipator, K.; Ebbinghaus, S.; Ibrahim, N.; Long, G.V. KEYNOTE-006 study of pembrolizumab (pembro) versus ipilimumab (ipi) for advanced melanoma: Efficacy by PD-L1 expression and line of therapy. J. Clinic. Oncol., 2016, 34(no. 15_suppl), 9513-9513.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.34.15_suppl.9513]
[74]
Sunshine, J.; Taube, J.M. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol., 2015, 23, 32-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2015.05.011] [PMID: 26047524]
[75]
Wolchok, J.D.; Chiarion-Sileni, V.; Gonzalez, R.; Rutkowski, P.; Grob, J.J.; Cowey, C.L.; Lao, C.D.; Wagstaff, J.; Schadendorf, D.; Ferrucci, P.F.; Smylie, M.; Dummer, R.; Hill, A.; Hogg, D.; Haanen, J.; Carlino, M.S.; Bechter, O.; Maio, M.; Marquez-Rodas, I.; Guidoboni, M.; McArthur, G.; Lebbé, C.; Ascierto, P.A.; Long, G.V.; Cebon, J.; Sosman, J.; Postow, M.A.; Callahan, M.K.; Walker, D.; Rollin, L.; Bhore, R.; Hodi, F.S.; Larkin, J. Overall survival with combined nivolumab and ipilimumab in advanced melanoma. N. Engl. J. Med., 2017, 377(14), 1345-1356.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1709684] [PMID: 28889792]
[76]
Koyama, S.; Akbay, E.A.; Li, Y.Y.; Herter-Sprie, G.S.; Buczkowski, K.A.; Richards, W.G.; Gandhi, L.; Redig, A.J.; Rodig, S.J.; Asahina, H.; Jones, R.E.; Kulkarni, M.M.; Kuraguchi, M.; Palakurthi, S.; Fecci, P.E.; Johnson, B.E.; Janne, P.A.; Engelman, J.A.; Gangadharan, S.P.; Costa, D.B.; Freeman, G.J.; Bueno, R.; Hodi, F.S.; Dranoff, G.; Wong, K.K.; Hammerman, P.S. Adaptive resistance to therapeutic PD-1 blockade is associated with upregulation of alternative immune checkpoints. Nat. Commun., 2016, 7, 10501.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10501] [PMID: 26883990]
[77]
Tallerico, R.; Cristiani, C.M.; Staaf, E.; Garofalo, C.; Sottile, R.; Capone, M.; Pico de Coaña, Y.; Madonna, G.; Palella, E.; Wolodarski, M.; Carannante, V.; Mallardo, D.; Simeone, E.; Grimaldi, A.M.; Johansson, S.; Frumento, P.; Gulletta, E.; Anichini, A.; Colucci, F.; Ciliberto, G.; Kiessling, R.; Kärre, K.; Ascierto, P.A.; Carbone, E. IL-15, TIM-3 and NK cells subsets predict responsiveness to anti-CTLA-4 treatment in melanoma patients. OncoImmunology, 2016, 6(2) e1261242
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2016.1261242] [PMID: 28344869]
[78]
Daud, A.I.; Loo, K.; Pauli, M.L.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, R.; Sandoval, P.M.; Taravati, K.; Tsai, K.; Nosrati, A.; Nardo, L.; Alvarado, M.D.; Algazi, A.P.; Pampaloni, M.H.; Lobach, I.V.; Hwang, J.; Pierce, R.H.; Gratz, I.K.; Krummel, M.F.; Rosenblum, M.D. Tumor immune profiling predicts response to anti-PD-1 therapy in human melanoma. J. Clin. Invest., 2016, 126(9), 3447-3452.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI87324] [PMID: 27525433]
[79]
Gajewski, T.F.; Corrales, L.; Williams, J.; Horton, B.; Sivan, A.; Spranger, S. Cancer immunotherapy targets based on understanding the T cell-inflamed versus non-t cell-inflamed tumor micro-environment Thomas. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 2017, 1036, 19-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67577-0] [PMID: 29275462]
[80]
Garrido, C.; Paco, L.; Romero, I.; Berruguilla, E.; Stefansky, J.; Collado, A.; Algarra, I.; Garrido, F.; Garcia-Lora, A.M. MHC class I molecules act as tumor suppressor genes regulating the cell cycle gene expression, invasion and intrinsic tumorigenicity of melanoma cells. Carcinogenesis, 2012, 33(3), 687-693.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgr318] [PMID: 22219178]
[81]
Johnson, D.B.; Estrada, M.V.; Salgado, R.; Sanchez, V.; Doxie, D.B.; Opalenik, S.R.; Vilgelm, A.E.; Feld, E.; Johnson, A.S.; Greenplate, A.R.; Sanders, M.E.; Lovly, C.M.; Frederick, D.T.; Kelley, M.C.; Richmond, A.; Irish, J.M.; Shyr, Y.; Sullivan, R.J.; Puzanov, I.; Sosman, J.A.; Balko, J.M. Melanoma-specific MHC-II expression represents a tumour-autonomous phenotype and predicts response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Nat. Commun., 2016, 7, 10582.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10582] [PMID: 26822383]
[82]
Shin, D.S.; Zaretsky, J.M.; Escuin-Ordinas, H.; Garcia-Diaz, A.; Hu-Lieskovan, S.; Kalbasi, A.; Grasso, C.S.; Hugo, W.; Sandoval, S.; Torrejon, D.Y.; Palaskas, N.; Rodriguez, G.A.; Parisi, G.; Azhdam, A.; Chmielowski, B.; Cherry, G.; Seja, E.; Berent-Maoz, B.; Shintaku, I.P.; Le, D.T.; Pardoll, D.M.; Diaz, L.A., Jr; Tumeh, P.C.; Graeber, T.G.; Lo, R.S.; Comin-Anduix, B.; Ribas, A. Primary resistance to PD-1 blockade mediated by JAK1/2 mutations. Cancer Discov., 2017, 7(2), 188-201.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-1223] [PMID: 27903500]
[83]
Zaretsky, J.M.; Garcia-Diaz, A.; Shin, D.S.; Escuin-Ordinas, H.; Hugo, W.; Hu-Lieskovan, S.; Torrejon, D.Y.; Abril-Rodriguez, G.; Sandoval, S.; Barthly, L.; Saco, J.; Homet Moreno, B.; Mezzadra, R.; Chmielowski, B.; Ruchalski, K.; Shintaku, I.P.; Sanchez, P.J.; Puig-Saus, C.; Cherry, G.; Seja, E.; Kong, X.; Pang, J.; Berent-Maoz, B.; Comin-Anduix, B.; Graeber, T.G.; Tumeh, P.C.; Schumacher, T.N.; Lo, R.S.; Ribas, A. Mutations associated with acquired resistance to PD-1 blockade in melanoma. N. Engl. J. Med., 2016, 375(9), 819-829.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1604958] [PMID: 27433843]
[84]
Wolchok, J.D.; Weber, J.S.; Hamid, O.; Lebbé, C.; Maio, M.; Schadendorf, D.; de Pril, V.; Heller, K.; Chen, T.T.; Ibrahim, R.; Hoos, A.; O’Day, S.J. Ipilimumab efficacy and safety in patients with advanced melanoma: a retrospective analysis of HLA subtype from four trials. Cancer Immun., 2010, 10, 9.
[PMID: 20957980]
[85]
Gao, J.; Shi, L.Z.; Zhao, H.; Chen, J.; Xiong, L.; He, Q.; Chen, T.; Roszik, J.; Bernatchez, C.; Woodman, S.E.; Chen, P.L.; Hwu, P.; Allison, J.P.; Futreal, A.5; Wargo, J.A.; Sharma, P. Loss of IFN-gamma pathway genes in tumor cells as a mechanism of resistance to anti-CTLA-4 therapy. Cell, 2016, 167, 397-404. e9
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.069] [PMID: 27667683]
[86]
Herbst, R.S.; Soria, J.C.; Kowanetz, M.; Fine, G.D.; Hamid, O.; Gordon, M.S.; Sosman, J.A.; McDermott, D.F.; Powderly, J.D.; Gettinger, S.N.; Kohrt, H.E.; Horn, L.; Lawrence, D.P.; Rost, S.; Leabman, M.; Xiao, Y.; Mokatrin, A.; Koeppen, H.; Hegde, P.S.; Mellman, I.; Chen, D.S.; Hodi, F.S. Predictive correlates of response to the anti-PD-L1 antibody MPDL3280A in cancer patients. Nature, 2014, 515(7528), 563-567.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14011] [PMID: 25428504]
[87]
Ayers, Mark; 1 Jared, Lunceford; 1 Michael, Nebozhyn McClanahan1 IFN-γ–related mRNA profile predicts clinical response to PD-1 blockade. J. Clin. Invest., 2017, 127(8), 2930-2940.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI91190]
[88]
Spranger, S.; Luke, J.J.; Bao, R.; Zha, Y.; Hernandez, K.M.; Li, Y.; Gajewski, A.P.; Andrade, J.; Gajewski, T.F. Density of immunogenic antigens does not explain the presence or absence of the T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment in melanoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2016, 113(48), E7759-E7768.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1609376113] [PMID: 27837020]
[89]
Goodman, A.M.; Kato, S.; Bazhenova, L.; Patel, S.P.; Frampton, G.M.; Miller, V.; Stephens, P.J.; Daniels, G.A.; Kurzrock, R. Tumor mutational burden as an independent predictor of response to immunotherapy in diverse cancers. Mol. Cancer Ther., 2017, 16(11), 2598-2608.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-0386] [PMID: 28835386]
[90]
McGranahan, N.; Furness, A.J.; Rosenthal, R.; Ramskov, S.; Lyngaa, R.; Saini, S.K.; Jamal-Hanjani, M.; Wilson, G.A.; Birkbak, N.J.; Hiley, C.T.; Watkins, T.B.; Shafi, S.; Murugaesu, N.; Mitter, R.; Akarca, A.U.; Linares, J.; Marafioti, T.; Henry, J.Y.; Van Allen, E.M.; Miao, D.; Schilling, B.; Schadendorf, D.; Garraway, L.A.; Makarov, V.; Rizvi, N.A.; Snyder, A.; Hellmann, M.D.; Merghoub, T.; Wolchok, J.D.; Shukla, S.A.; Wu, C.J.; Peggs, K.S.; Chan, T.A.; Hadrup, S.R.; Quezada, S.A.; Swanton, C. Clonal neoantigens elicit T cell immunoreactivity and sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade. Science, 2016, 351(6280), 1463-1469.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf1490] [PMID: 26940869]
[91]
Van Allen, E.M.; Miao, D.; Schilling, B.; Shukla, S.A.; Blank, C.; Zimmer, L.; Sucker, A.; Hillen, U.; Foppen, M.H.G.; Goldinger, S.M.; Utikal, J.; Hassel, J.C.; Weide, B.; Kaehler, K.C.; Loquai, C.; Mohr, P.; Gutzmer, R.; Dummer, R.; Gabriel, S.; Wu, C.J.; Schadendorf, D.; Garraway, L.A. Genomic correlates of response to CTLA-4 blockade in metastatic melanoma. Science, 2015, 350(6257), 207-211.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad0095] [PMID: 26359337]
[92]
Cristescu, R.; Mogg, R.; Ayers, M.; Albright, A.; Murphy, E.; Yearley, J.; Sher, X.; Liu, X.Q.; Lu, H.; Nebozhyn, M.; Zhang, C.; Lunceford, J.K.; Joe, A.; Cheng, J.; Webber, A.L.; Ibrahim, N.; Plimack, E.R.; Ott, P.A.; Seiwert, T.Y.; Ribas, A.; McClanahan, T.K.; Tomassini, J.E.; Loboda, A.; Kaufman, D. Pan-tumor genomic biomarkers for PD-1 checkpoint blockade-based immunotherapy. Science, 2018, 362(6411) eaar3593
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aar3593] [PMID: 30309915]
[93]
Dudley, J.C.; Lin, M.T.; Le, D.T.; Eshleman, J.R. Microsatellite instability as a biomarker for PD-1 blockade. Clin. Cancer Res., 2016, 22(4), 813-820.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1678] [PMID: 26880610]
[94]
Kubeček, O.; Kopecký, J. Microsatellite instability in melanoma: a comprehensive review. Melanoma Res., 2016, 26(6), 545-550.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000298] [PMID: 27623135]
[95]
Tomlinson, I.P.; Beck, N.E.; Bodmer, W.F. Allele loss on chromosome 11q and microsatellite instability in malignant melanoma. Eur. J. Cancer, 1996, 32A(10), 1797-1802.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0959-8049(96)00198-0] [PMID: 8983292]
[96]
Gambichler, T.; Brown, V.; Steuke, A.K.; Schmitz, L.; Stockfleth, E.; Susok, L. Baseline laboratory parameters predicting clinical outcome in melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab: a single-centre analysis. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol., 2018, 32(6), 972-977.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdv.14629]
[97]
Diem, S.; Kasenda, B.; Spain, L.; Martin-Liberal, J.; Marconcini, R.; Gore, M.; Larkin, J. Serum lactate dehydrogenase as an early marker for outcome in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy in metastatic melanoma. Br. J. Cancer, 2016, 114(3), 256-261.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2015.467] [PMID: 26794281]
[98]
Balatoni, T.; Ladányi, A.; Fröhlich, G.; Czirbesz, K.; Kovács, P.; Pánczél, G.; Bence, E.; Plótár, V.; Liszkay, G. Biomarkers associated with clinical outcome of advanced melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab. Pathol. Oncol. Res., 2018.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12253-018-0466-9] [PMID: 30225783]
[99]
Wagner, N.B.; Forschner, A.; Leiter, U.; Garbe, C.; Eigentler, T.K. S100B and LDH as early prognostic markers for response and overall survival in melanoma patients treated with anti-PD-1 or combined anti-PD-1 plus anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Br. J. Cancer, 2018, 119(3), 339-346.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-018-0167-x] [PMID: 29950611]
[100]
Lee, J.H.; Long, G.V.; Boyd, S.; Lo, S.; Menzies, A.M.; Tembe, V.; Guminski, A.; Jakrot, V.; Scolyer, R.A.; Mann, G.J.; Kefford, R.F.; Carlino, M.S.; Rizos, H. Circulating tumour DNA predicts response to anti-PD1 antibodies in metastatic melanoma. Ann. Oncol., 2017, 28(5), 1130-1136.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdx026] [PMID: 28327969]
[101]
Herbreteau, G.; Vallée, A.; Knol, A.C.; Théoleyre, S.; Quéreux, G.; Varey, E.; Khammari, A.; Dréno, B.; Denis, M.G. Quantitative monitoring of circulating tumor DNA predicts response of cutaneous metastatic melanoma to anti-PD1 immunotherapy. Oncotarget, 2018, 9(38), 25265-25276.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25404] [PMID: 29861869]
[102]
Pistillo, M.P.; Fontana, V.; Morabito, A.; Dozin, B.; Laurent, S.; Carosio, R.; Banelli, B.; Ferrero, F.; Spano, L.; Tanda, E.; Ferrucci, P.F.; Martinoli, C.; Cocorocchio, E.; Guida, M.; Tommasi, S.; De Galitiis, F.; Pagani, E.; Antonini Cappellini, G.C.; Marchetti, P.; Quaglino, P.; Fava, P.; Osella-Abate, S.; Ascierto, P.A.; Capone, M.; Simeone, E.; Romani, M.; Spagnolo, F.; Queirolo, P. Italian Melanoma Intergroup (IMI). Soluble CTLA-4 as a favorable predictive biomarker in metastatic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab: an Italian melanoma intergroup study. Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 2019, 68(1), 97-107.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-018-2258-1] [PMID: 30311027]
[103]
Zhou, J.; Mahoney, K.M.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Zhao, F.; Lee, S.; Liao, X.; Rodig, S.; Li, J.; Wu, X.; Butterfield, L.H.; Piesche, M.; Manos, M.P.; Eastman, L.M.; Dranoff, G.; Freeman, G.J.; Hodi, F.S. Soluble PD-L1 as a biomarker in malignant melanoma treated with checkpoint blockade. Cancer Immunol. Res., 2017, 5(6), 480-492.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-16-0329] [PMID: 28522460]
[104]
Martens, A.; Wistuba-Hamprecht, K.; Geukes Foppen, M.; Yuan, J.; Postow, M.A.; Wong, P.; Romano, E.; Khammari, A.; Dreno, B.; Capone, M.; Ascierto, P.A.; Di Giacomo, A.M.; Maio, M.; Schilling, B.; Sucker, A.; Schadendorf, D.; Hassel, J.C.; Eigentler, T.K.; Martus, P.; Wolchok, J.D.; Blank, C.; Pawelec, G.; Garbe, C.; Weide, B. Baseline peripheral blood biomarkers associated with clinical outcome of advanced melanoma patients treated with Ipilimumab. Clin. Cancer Res., 2016, 1522(12), 2908-2918.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2412]
[105]
Wilgenhof, S.; Du Four, S.; Vandenbroucke, F.; Everaert, H.; Salmon, I.; Liénard, D.; Marmol, V.D.; Neyns, B. Single-center experience with ipilimumab in an expanded access program for patients with pretreated advanced melanoma. J. Immunother., 2013, 36(3), 215-222.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CJI.0b013e31828eed39] [PMID: 23502769]
[106]
Nakamura, Y.; Kitano, S.; Takahashi, A. Nivolumab for advanced melanoma: pretreatment prognostic factors and early outcome markers during therapy. Oncotarget, 2016, 7, 77404-77415.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.12677]
[107]
Weide, B.; Martens, A.; Hassel, J.C.; Berking, C.; Postow, M.A.; Bisschop, K.; Simeone, E.; Mangana, J.; Schilling, B.; Di Giacomo, A.M.; Brenner, N.; Kähler, K.; Heinzerling, L.; Gutzmer, R.; Bender, A.; Gebhardt, C.; Romano, E.; Meier, F.; Martus, P.; Maio, M.; Blank, C.; Schadendorf, D.; Dummer, R.; Ascierto, P.A.; Hospers, G.; Garbe, C.; Wolchok, J.D. Baseline biomarkers for outcome of melanoma patients treated with pembrolizumab. Clin. Cancer Res., 2016, 22(22), 5487-5496.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-0127] [PMID: 27185375]
[108]
Fujisawa, Y.; Yoshino, K.; Otsuka, A.; Funakoshi, T.; Fujimura, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Hata, H.; Tanaka, R.; Yamaguchi, K.; Nonomura, Y.; Hirai, I.; Furudate, S.; Okuhira, H.; Imafuku, K.; Aoki, M.; Matsushita, S. Baseline neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio combined with serum lactate dehydrogenase level associated with outcome of nivolumab immunotherapy in a Japanese advanced melanoma population. Br. J. Dermatol., 2018, 179(1), 213-215.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.16427] [PMID: 29405254]
[109]
Tanaka, A.; Sakaguchi, S. Regulatory T cells in cancer immunotherapy. Cell Res., 2017, 27(1), 109-118.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cr.2016.151] [PMID: 27995907]
[110]
Simeone, E.; Gentilcore, G.; Giannarelli, D.; Grimaldi, A.M.; Caracò, C.; Curvietto, M.; Esposito, A.; Paone, M.; Palla, M.; Cavalcanti, E.; Sandomenico, F.; Petrillo, A.; Botti, G.; Fulciniti, F.; Palmieri, G.; Queirolo, P.; Marchetti, P.; Ferraresi, V.; Rinaldi, G.; Pistillo, M.P.; Ciliberto, G.; Mozzillo, N.; Ascierto, P.A. Immunological and biological changes during ipilimumab treatment and their potential correlation with clinical response and survival in patients with advanced melanoma. Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 2014, 63(7), 675-683.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-014-1545-8] [PMID: 24695951]
[111]
Wu, X.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Liao, X.; Connelly, C.; Connolly, E.M.; Li, J.; Manos, M.P.; Lawrence, D.; McDermott, D.; Severgnini, M.; Zhou, J.; Gjini, E.; Lako, A.; Lipschitz, M.; Pak, C.J.; Abdelrahman, S.; Rodig, S.; Hodi, F.S. Angiopoietin-2 as a biomarker and target for immune checkpoint therapy. Cancer Immunol. Res., 2017, 5(1), 17-28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-16-0206] [PMID: 28003187]
[112]
Merimsky, O.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Yecheskel, G.; Chaitchik, S.; Azizi, E.; Fishman, P. Vitiligo- and melanoma-associated hypopigmentation: a similar appearance but a different mechanism. Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 1994, 38(6), 411-416.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01517212] [PMID: 8205563]
[113]
Nordlund, J.J.; Kirkwood, J.M.; Forget, B.M.; Milton, G.; Albert, D.M.; Lerner, A.B. Vitiligo in patients with metastatic melanoma: a good prognostic sign. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 1983, 9(5), 689-696.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(83)70182-9] [PMID: 6643767]
[114]
Bystryn, J.C.; Rigel, D.; Friedman, R.J.; Kopf, A. Prognostic significance of hypopigmentation in malignant melanoma. Arch. Dermatol., 1987, 123(8), 1053-1055.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1987.01660320095019] [PMID: 3631983]
[115]
Tawbi, H.A.; Peter, A.J. Forsyth; Stephen Hodi, F. Kim Allyson Margolin, A. Efficacy and safety of the combination of nivolumab (NIVO) plus ipilimumab (IPI) in patients with symptomatic melanoma brain metastases (CheckMate 204). J. Clin. Oncol., 2019, 35(Suppl. 15), 9507-9507.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.35.15_suppl.9507]
[116]
Ribas, A.; Hamid, O.; Daud, A.; Hodi, F.S.; Wolchok, J.D.; Kefford, R.; Joshua, A.M.; Patnaik, A.; Hwu, W.J.; Weber, J.S.; Gangadhar, T.C.; Hersey, P.; Dronca, R.; Joseph, R.W.; Zarour, H.; Chmielowski, B.; Lawrence, D.P.; Algazi, A.; Rizvi, N.A.; Hoffner, B.; Mateus, C.; Gergich, K.; Lindia, J.A.; Giannotti, M.; Li, X.N.; Ebbinghaus, S.; Kang, S.P.; Robert, C. Association of pembrolizumab with tumor response and survival among patients with advanced melanoma. JAMA, 2016, 315(15), 1600-1609.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.4059] [PMID: 27092830]
[117]
Tumeh, P.C.; Hellmann, M.D.; Hamid, O.; Tsai, K.K.; Loo, K.L.; Gubens, M.A.; Rosenblum, M.; Harview, C.L.; Taube, J.M.; Handley, N.; Khurana, N.; Nosrati, A.; Krummel, M.F.; Tucker, A.; Sosa, E.V.; Sanchez, P.J.; Banayan, N.; Osorio, J.C.; Nguyen-Kim, D.L.; Chang, J.; Shintaku, I.P.; Boasberg, P.D.; Taylor, E.J.; Munster, P.N.; Algazi, A.P.; Chmielowski, B.; Dummer, R.; Grogan, T.R.; Elashoff, D.; Hwang, J.; Goldinger, S.M.; Garon, E.B.; Pierce, R.H.; Daud, A. Liver metastasis and treatment outcome with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody in patients with melanoma and NSCLC. Cancer Immunol. Res., 2017, 5(5), 417-424.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-16-0325] [PMID: 28411193]
[118]
Huang, A.C.; Postow, M.A.; Orlowski, R.J.; Mick, R.; Bengsch, B.; Manne, S.; Xu, W.; Harmon, S.; Giles, J.R.; Wenz, B.; Adamow, M.; Kuk, D.; Panageas, K.S.; Carrera, C.; Wong, P.; Quagliarello, F.; Wubbenhorst, B.; D’Andrea, K.; Pauken, K.E.; Herati, R.S.; Staupe, R.P.; Schenkel, J.M.; McGettigan, S.; Kothari, S.; George, S.M.; Vonderheide, R.H.; Amaravadi, R.K.; Karakousis, G.C.; Schuchter, L.M.; Xu, X.; Nathanson, K.L.; Wolchok, J.D.; Gangadhar, T.C.; Wherry, E.J. T-cell invigoration to tumour burden ratio associated with anti-PD-1 response. Nature, 2017, 545(7652), 60-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature22079] [PMID: 28397821]
[119]
Gopalakrishnan, V.; Spencer, C.N.; Nezi, L.; Reuben, A.; Andrews, M.C.; Karpinets, T.V.; Prieto, P.A.; Vicente, D.; Hoffman, K.; Wei, S.C.; Cogdill, A.P.; Zhao, L.; Hudgens, C.W.; Hutchinson, D.S.; Manzo, T.; Petaccia de Macedo, M.; Cotechini, T.; Kumar, T.; Chen, W.S.; Reddy, S.M.; Szczepaniak Sloane, R.; Galloway-Pena, J.; Jiang, H.; Chen, P.L.; Shpall, E.J.; Rezvani, K.; Alousi, A.M.; Chemaly, R.F.; Shelburne, S.; Vence, L.M.; Okhuysen, P.C.; Jensen, V.B.; Swennes, A.G.; McAllister, F.; Marcelo Riquelme Sanchez, E.; Zhang, Y.; Le Chatelier, E.; Zitvogel, L.; Pons, N.; Austin-Breneman, J.L.; Haydu, L.E.; Burton, E.M.; Gardner, J.M.; Sirmans, E.; Hu, J.; Lazar, A.J.; Tsujikawa, T.; Diab, A.; Tawbi, H.; Glitza, I.C.; Hwu, W.J.; Patel, S.P.; Woodman, S.E.; Amaria, R.N.; Davies, M.A.; Gershenwald, J.E.; Hwu, P.; Lee, J.E.; Zhang, J.; Coussens, L.M.; Cooper, Z.A.; Futreal, P.A.; Daniel, C.R.; Ajami, N.J.; Petrosino, J.F.; Tetzlaff, M.T.; Sharma, P.; Allison, J.P.; Jenq, R.R.; Wargo, J.A. Gut microbiome modulates response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in melanoma patients. Science, 2018, 359(6371), 97-103.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aan4236] [PMID: 29097493]
[120]
Chaput, N.; Lepage, P.; Coutzac, C.; Soularue, E.; Le Roux, K.; Monot, C.; Boselli, L.; Routier, E.; Cassard, L.; Collins, M.; Vaysse, T.; Marthey, L.; Eggermont, A.; Asvatourian, V.; Lanoy, E.; Mateus, C.; Robert, C.; Carbonnel, F. Baseline gut microbiota predicts clinical response and colitis in metastatic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab. Ann. Oncol., 2017, 28(6), 1368-1379.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdx108] [PMID: 28368458]
[121]
Ascierto, P.A.; McArthur, G.A.; Dréno, B.; Atkinson, V.; Liszkay, G.; Di Giacomo, A.M.; Mandalà, M.; Demidov, L.; Stroyakovskiy, D.; Thomas, L.; de la Cruz-Merino, L.; Dutriaux, C.; Garbe, C.; Yan, Y.; Wongchenko, M.; Chang, I.; Hsu, J.J.; Koralek, D.O.; Rooney, I.; Ribas, A.; Larkin, J. Cobimetinib combined with vemurafenib in advanced BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma (coBRIM): updated efficacy results from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol., 2016, 17(9), 1248-1260.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30122-X] [PMID: 27480103]
[122]
Ascierto, P.A.; Grant, A. McArthur; Dréno, B.; Larkin, J.; Liszkay, G.; Maio, M.; Mandala, M.; Demidov, L.; Stroyakovskiy, D.; Thomas, L.; de la Cruz-Merino, L.; Atkinson, V.; Dutriaux, C.; Garbe C.; Chang, I.; Hack, S.P.; Ribas, A. coBRIM: a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of vemurafenib versus vemurafenib + cobimetinib in previously untreated BRAFV600 mutation-positive patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic melanoma (NCT01689519). J. Transl. Med., 2015, 13(Suppl. 1), O4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-13-S1-O4]
[123]
Grob, J.J.; Amonkar, M.M.; Karaszewska, B.; Schachter, J.; Dummer, R.; Mackiewicz, A.; Stroyakovskiy, D.; Drucis, K.; Grange, F.; Chiarion-Sileni, V.; Rutkowski, P.; Lichinitser, M.; Levchenko, E.; Wolter, P.; Hauschild, A.; Long, G.V.; Nathan, P.; Ribas, A.; Flaherty, K.; Sun, P.; Legos, J.J.; McDowell, D.O.; Mookerjee, B.; Schadendorf, D.; Robert, C. Comparison of dabrafenib and trametinib combination therapy with vemurafenib monotherapy on health-related quality of life in patients with unresectable or metastatic cutaneous BRAF Val600-mutation-positive melanoma (COMBI-v): results of a phase 3, open-label, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol., 2015, 16(13), 1389-1398.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00087-X] [PMID: 26433819]
[124]
Long, G.V.; Stroyakovskiy, D.; Gogas, H.; Levchenko, E.; de Braud, F.; Larkin, J.; Garbe, C.; Jouary, T.; Hauschild, A.; Grob, J.J.; Chiarion-Sileni, V.; Lebbe, C.; Mandalà, M.; Millward, M.; Arance, A.; Bondarenko, I.; Haanen, J.; Hansson, J.; Utikal, J.; Ferraresi, V.; Kovalenko, N.; Mohr, P.; Probachai, V.; Schadendorf, D.; Nathan, P.; Robert, C.; Ribas, A.; DeMarini, D.J.; Irani, J.G.; Swann, S.; Legos, J.J.; Jin, F.; Mookerjee, B.; Flaherty, K. Dabrafenib and trametinib versus dabrafenib and placebo for Val600 BRAF-mutant melanoma: a multicentre, double-blind, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 2015, 1386(9992), 444-451.
[125]
Flaherty, K.T.; Puzanov, I.; Kim, K.B.; Ribas, A.; McArthur, G.A.; Sosman, J.A.; O’Dwyer, P.J.; Lee, R.J.; Grippo, J.F.; Nolop, K.; Chapman, P.B. Inhibition of mutated, activated BRAF in metastatic melanoma. N. Engl. J. Med., 2010, 363(9), 809-819.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1002011] [PMID: 20818844]
[126]
Chapman, P.B.; Hauschild, A.; Robert, C.; Haanen, J.B.; Ascierto, P.; Larkin, J.; Dummer, R.; Garbe, C.; Testori, A.; Maio, M.; Hogg, D.; Lorigan, P.; Lebbe, C.; Jouary, T.; Schadendorf, D.; Ribas, A.; O’Day, S.J.; Sosman, J.A.; Kirkwood, J.M.; Eggermont, A.M.; Dreno, B.; Nolop, K.; Li, J.; Nelson, B.; Hou, J.; Lee, R.J.; Flaherty, K.T.; McArthur, G.A. BRIM-3 Study Group. Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation. N. Engl. J. Med., 2011, 364(26), 2507-2516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1103782] [PMID: 21639808]
[127]
Flaherty, K.T.; Infante, J.R.; Daud, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Kefford, R.F.; Sosman, J.; Hamid, O.; Schuchter, L.; Cebon, J.; Ibrahim, N.; Kudchadkar, R.; Burris, H.A., III; Falchook, G.; Algazi, A.; Lewis, K.; Long, G.V.; Puzanov, I.; Lebowitz, P.; Singh, A.; Little, S.; Sun, P.; Allred, A.; Ouellet, D.; Kim, K.B.; Patel, K.; Weber, J. Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma with BRAF V600 mutations. N. Engl. J. Med., 2012, 367(18), 1694-1703.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1210093] [PMID: 23020132]
[128]
Nazarian, R.; Shi, H.; Wang, Q.; Kong, X.; Koya, R.C.; Lee, H.; Chen, Z.; Lee, M.K.; Attar, N.; Sazegar, H.; Chodon, T.; Nelson, S.F.; McArthur, G.; Sosman, J.A.; Ribas, A.; Lo, R.S. Melanomas acquire resistance to B-RAF(V600E) inhibition by RTK or N-RAS upregulation. Nature, 2010, 468(7326), 973-977.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature09626] [PMID: 21107323]
[129]
Tsao, H.; Chin, L.; Garraway, L.A.; Fisher, D.E. Melanoma: from mutations to medicine. Genes Dev., 2012, 26(11), 1131-1155.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.191999.112] [PMID: 22661227]
[130]
Flaherty, K.; Davies, M.A.; Grob, J.J.; Long, G.V.; Nathan, P.D.; Ribas, A.; Robert, C.; Schadendorf, D.; Frederick, D.T.; Hammond, M.R.; Jane-Valbuena, J.; Mu, X.J.; Squires, M.; Jaeger, S.A.; Lane, S.R.; Mookerjee Levi, B.; Garraway, A. Genomic analysis and 3-y efficacy and safety update of COMBI-d: A phase 3 study of dabrafenib (D) + trametinib (T) vs D monotherapy in patients (pts) with unresectable or metastatic BRAF V600E/K-mutant cutaneous melanoma. J. Clin. Oncol., 2016, 34(Suppl. 15), 9502-9502.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.34.15_suppl.9502]
[131]
Amaria, R.N.; Prieto, P.A.; Tetzlaff, M.T.; Reuben, A.; Andrews, M.C.; Ross, M.I.; Glitza, I.C.; Cormier, J.; Hwu, W.J.; Tawbi, H.A.; Patel, S.P.; Lee, J.E.; Gershenwald, J.E.; Spencer, C.N.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Bassett, R.; Simpson, L.; Mouton, R.; Hudgens, C.W.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, H.; Cooper, Z.A.; Wani, K.; Lazar, A.; Hwu, P.; Diab, A.; Wong, M.K.; McQuade, J.L.; Royal, R.; Lucci, A.; Burton, E.M.; Reddy, S.; Sharma, P.; Allison, J.; Futreal, P.A.; Woodman, S.E.; Davies, M.A.; Wargo, J.A. Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant dabrafenib and trametinib versus standard of care in patients with high-risk, surgically resectable melanoma: a single-centre, open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol., 2018, 19(2), 181-193.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30015-9] [PMID: 29361468]
[132]
Hauschild, A.; Dummer, R.; Schadendorf, D.; Santinami, M.; Atkinson, V.; Mandalà, M.; Chiarion-Sileni, V.; Larkin, J.; Nyakas, M.; Dutriaux, C.; Haydon, A.; Robert, C.; Mortier, L.; Schachter, J.; Lesimple, T.; Plummer, R.; Dasgupta, K.; Haas, T.; Shilkrut, M.; Gasal, E.; Kefford, R.; Kirkwood, J.M.; Long, G.V. Longer follow-up confirms relapse-free survival benefit with adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib in Patients with resected BRAF V600-mutant stage III melanoma. J. Clin. Oncol., 2018. JCO1801219.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.01219] [PMID: 30343620]
[133]
McArthur, G.; Larkin, J.; Dréno, B.; Ascierto, P.; Liszkay, G.; Maio, M.; Mandal´, M.; Demidov, L.; Stroyakovskiy, D.; Thomas, L.; De la Cruz-Merino, L.; Atkinson, V.; Dutriaux, C.; Garbe, C.; Wongchenko, M.; Hsu, J.; Koralek, D.; Rooney, I.; Yan, Y.; Ribas, A. Impact of baseline genetic heterogeneities on progression-free survival (PFS) in patients (pts) with advanced BRAFV600-mutated melanoma treated with cobimetinib (COBI) + vemurafenib (VEM) in the phase 3 coBRIM study. Eur. J. Cancer, 2015, 51(3), S720-S723.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(16)31945-1]
[134]
Schadendorf, D.; Lewis, K.; Maio, M.; Demidov, L.; Mandalà, M.; Bondarenko, I.; Ascierto, P.A.; Herbert, C.; Mackiewicz, A.; Rutkowski, P.; Guminski, A.; Goodman, G.; Simmons, B.; Ye, C.; Hooper, G.; Wongchenko, M.J.; Yibing, Yan. Prognostic impact of baseline tumor immune infiltrate on disease-free survival in patients with completely resected, BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma receiving adjuvant vemurafenib. Ann. Oncol., 2020, 31(1), 153-159.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annonc.2019.10.002] [PMID: 31912791]
[135]
Long, G.V.; Grob, J.J.; Nathan, P.; Ribas, A.; Robert, C.; Schadendorf, D.; Lane, S.R.; Mak, C.; Legenne, P.; Flaherty, K.T.; Davies, M.A. Factors predictive of response, disease progression, and overall survival after dabrafenib and trametinib combination treatment: a pooled analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet Oncol., 2016, 17(12), 1743-1754.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30578-2] [PMID: 27864013]
[136]
Robert, C.; Grob, J.J.; Stroyakovskiy, D. Five-year outcomes with dabrafenib plus trametinib in metastatic melanoma. N. Engl. J. Med., 2019, 381(7), 626-636.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1904059]
[137]
McArthur, G.A.; Chapman, P.B.; Robert, C.; Larkin, J.; Haanen, J.B.; Dummer, R.; Ribas, A.; Hogg, D.; Hamid, O.; Ascierto, P.A.; Garbe, C.; Testori, A.; Maio, M.; Lorigan, P.; Lebbé, C.; Jouary, T.; Schadendorf, D.; O’Day, S.J.; Kirkwood, J.M.; Eggermont, A.M.; Dréno, B.; Sosman, J.A.; Flaherty, K.T.; Yin, M.; Caro, I.; Cheng, S.; Trunzer, K.; Hauschild, A. Safety and efficacy of vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E) and BRAF(V600K) mutation-positive melanoma (BRIM-3): extended follow-up of a phase 3, randomised, open-label study. Lancet Oncol., 2014, 15(3), 323-332.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70012-9] [PMID: 24508103]
[138]
Larkin, J.; Ascierto, P.A.; Dréno, B.; Atkinson, V.; Liszkay, G.; Maio, M.; Mandalà, M.; Demidov, L.; Stroyakovskiy, D.; Thomas, L.; de la Cruz-Merino, L.; Dutriaux, C.; Garbe, C.; Sovak, M.A.; Chang, I.; Choong, N.; Hack, S.P.; McArthur, G.A.; Ribas, A. Combined vemurafenib and cobimetinib in BRAF-mutated melanoma. N. Engl. J. Med., 2014, 371(20), 1867-1876.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1408868] [PMID: 25265494]
[139]
Ribas, A.; Kim, K.B.; Schuchter, L.M.; Gonzalez, R.; Pavlick, A.C.; Weber, J.S.; McArthur, G.A.; Hutson, T.E.; Flaherty, K.T.; Moschos, S.J.; Lawrence, D.P.; Hersey, P.; Kefford, R.F.; Chmielowski, B.; Puzanov, I.; Li, J.; Nolop, K.B.; Lee, R.J.; Joe, A.K.; Sosman, J.A. BRIM-2: An open-label, multicenter phase II study of vemu-rafenib in previously treated patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive metastatic melanoma. J. Clin. Oncol., 2011, 29(Suppl. 15), 8509-8509.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/jco.2011.29.15_suppl.8509]
[140]
Larkin, J.; Ribas, A.; Flaherty, K.; McArthur, G.A.; Ascierto, P.A.; Dréno, B.; Lewis, K.D.; Chapman, P.B.; Mckenna, F.E.; Zhu, Q.; Mun, Y.; Hauschild, A. Identifying prognostic subgroups for outcomes in BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma patients (pts) treated with vemurafenib (V) ± cobimetinib (C): A pooled analysis of BRIM-2, BRIM-3, BRIM-7 and coBRIM. J. Clin. Oncol., 2016, 34(Suppl. 15), 9536-9536.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.34.15_suppl.9536]
[141]
Ascierto, P.A.; Ribas, A.; Larkin, J.; McArthur, G.A.; Lewis, K.D.; Hauschild, A.; Flaherty, K.T.; McKenna, E.; Zhu, Q.; Mun, Y.; Dréno, B. Prognostic subgroups and impact of treatment for post-progression overall survival (ppOS) in patients (pts) with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma treated with dacarbazine (DTIC) or vemurafenib (VEM) ± cobimetinib (COBI): a pooled analysis. Ann. Oncol., 2016, 27(suppl_6), 1142.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdw379.37]
[142]
Ascierto, P.A.; Dréno, B.; Larkin, J.; McArthur, G.; Danielli, R.; Demidov, L.; Park, E.; Gilberg, E.; Antic, E.; Ribas, A. Clinical predictors of survival with cobimetinib (C) combined with vemurafenib (V): pooled analysis from BRIM7 and coBRIM. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res., 2016, 30, 76-156.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcmr.12547]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 27
ISSUE: 17
Year: 2020
Page: [2792 - 2813]
Pages: 22
DOI: 10.2174/0929867326666191205160007
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 33
HTML: 6