Natural Products with Analgesic Effect from Herbs and Nutraceuticals Used in Traditional Chinese Medicines

Author(s): Tian-Xing Wang, Guo-Jie Wu, Jian-Guo Jiang*

Journal Name: Current Molecular Medicine

Volume 20 , Issue 6 , 2020


  Journal Home
Translate in Chinese
Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Abstract:

Background: Pain is one of the most common clinical symptoms . This review aims to describe research on herbs and their active ingredients in treating pain and provide a valuable reference for the development and utilization of analgesic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

Material and Methods: The literature search was performed from 1995 to October 2016, covering the relevant studies that concern the treatment of pain with TCM. Active ingredients extracted from TCM with analgesic activity are summarized and classified into six categories, including polysaccharides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and other constituents.

Results: There are two pathways constituting the analgesic mechanisms of TCM: through the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The former pathway includes increasing the content of endogenous analgesic substances like opiate peptide, cutting down the second messenger of neurotransmitter like nitric oxide (NO), reducing the content of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in brain tissues, blocking the central calcium channel, reducing excitatory amino acids in brain tissues, inhibiting their receptors and raising the content of the central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The latter one usually involves the decrease in the secretion of peripheral algogenic substances, the induction of pain-sensitive substances, the accumulation of a local algogenic substance, the increase in the release of peripheral endogenous analgesia materials and the regulation of c-Fos gene (immediate early gene).

Keywords: Traditional chinese medicine, active ingredients, pain, analgesic, pharmacological mechanisms.

[1]
Costigan M, Scholz J, Woolf CJ. Neuropathic pain: a maladaptive response of the nervous system to damage. Annu Rev Neurosci 2009; 32(3): 1-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.051508.135531] [PMID: 19400724]
[2]
Li GM, Xu XM. Advances on mechanism and treatment of neuropathic pain. Pract Clin Med 2013; 14(6): 135-9.
[3]
Zhao X, Yu BW. Advances on mechanism of pain. Shanghai Med J 2007; 30(6): 462-5.
[4]
Zhang ZS. Neuropathic pain diagnosis expert consensus. Chin J Pain Med 2013; 19(12): 705-10.
[5]
Gao C, Liu YP. Research on analgesia mechanism and development of traditional Chinese medicine. J Chengde Med Coll 2010; 27(3): 321-3.
[6]
Cao J. Research on analgesia mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine. Jilin J Tradit Chinese Med 2004; 24(7): 60-1.
[7]
Zhang MJ, Chu KD. Research on analgesia traditional Chinese medicine. Strait Pharmaceut J 2008; 20(10): 93-6.
[8]
Agrawal PK. NMR spectroscopy in the structural elucidation of oligosaccharides and glycosides. Phytochemistry 1992; 31(10): 3307-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(92)83678-R] [PMID: 1368855]
[9]
Chen HL. Advances in the effective components on analgesia by traditional Chinese medicine. J Anhui Sci Technol Univ 2012; 26(3): 11-4.
[10]
Liu YR. Advances on the analgesic effect of polysaccharopeptide. Health Vocational Educ 2008; 26(12): 129-30.
[11]
Liu DN, Luo J. Observation of analgesic effects of intragastric fructus schizandrae polysaccharide administration at different doses. J Fourth Military Med Univ 2008; 29(12): 1115-7.
[12]
Zhang BB, Xu ZP, Wang BQ, Sun HW, Zhang Y. Antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of grifola β-glucan. Shanghai Jiaotong Daxue Xuebao (Nongye Kexueban) 2009; 27(2): 134-7.
[13]
Wang W. Research status of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Capital Med 2011; 18(22): 16-7.
[14]
Hu JY, Pan KY, Xu X, Chen F. Experimental studies on antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of bupleurum Chinese dc. TCM Res 2005; 18(03): 11-3.
[15]
Cordell GA. Cheminform abstract: biodiversity and drug discovery – a symbiotic relationship. ChemInform 2001; 32(7.)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chin.200107268]
[16]
Zhang J, Xiao LW, Dai TJ, Zou JL. Research the effect of oxymatrine on c-fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and opioid receptor. Chinese Arch Tradit Chinese Med 2009; 27(5): 1077-9.
[17]
Chen WR, Zhang HL, Zhang Y, Feng YJ. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipruritic effects of harmine. Tianjin Yi Yao 2004; 32(11): 681-3.
[18]
Patra JC, Chua BH. Artificial neural network-based drug design for diabetes mellitus using flavonoids. J Comput Chem 2011; 32(4): 555-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcc.21641] [PMID: 20806262]
[19]
Ma R, Wu SB. Research progress about pharmacological effect and mechanism of flavonoids in traditional Chinese medicine. Chin J Pharmacovigil 2013; 10(5): 286-90.
[20]
Wang J, Wang JN, Jiang YX, Zhou PP, Wang HH. The mechanism of anthocyanin to anti-inflammatory and analgesic from Ligustrum fruit Chin J Appl Physiol 2015; (5): 431-6.
[21]
Wang LJ, Wang Y, Zhu XY, Zhai J, Ouyang Y. Experimental studies on analgesic effect of Scutellaria baicalensis. J Qiqihar Med Coll 2008; 29(11): 1304-5.
[22]
Albert E, Duilio A. Revisited after 50 years: The “Stereochemical interpretation of the biogenetic isoprene rule for the triterpenes”. Helv Chim Acta 2005; 88(12): 3011-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hlca.200590245]
[23]
Liu M, Zhou LL, Wang L, Pang MQ. Preliminary studies of analgesic effect and mechanism of iridoid glycosides of Paederia scandens. Pharmacol Clin Chin Mater Med 2008; 24(6): 43-5.
[24]
Li HY. Study on the activity of ginseng protein. Changchun Univ Chinese Med 2010.
[25]
Shangguan Z, Lian QS. Experimental study on the analgesic effect of xanthotoxol. Tradit Chin Drug Res Clin Pharmacol 1997; (1): 45-6.
[26]
Wang XB. A study of analgesic effect and mechanism of crystal-8 from Zanthoxylum Nitidum(Roxb)Dc. Guangxi Medical University 2009.
[27]
Song YY, Li Y, Zhang HQ. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of syringin and its possible mechanism. Zhongguo Yesheng Zhiwu Ziyuan 2010; 29(4): 27-30.
[28]
Zhang XJ, He YH. A summary of pharmacological studies on analgesia of Zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim, Rhizoma Corydalis, myrrh and Pseudo-ginseng. Strait Pharmaceut J 2009; 21(2): 62-3.
[29]
Lim I, Chess-Williams R, Sellers D. 5-HT2A receptor is the predominant receptor mediating contraction of the isolated porcine distal ureter to 5-HT in young and old animals. Eur J Pharmacol 2018; 818: 328-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.11.001] [PMID: 29104045]
[30]
Hoyer D, Clarke DE, Fozard JR, et al. International union of pharmacology classification of receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (Serotonin). Pharmacol Rev 1994; 46(2): 157-203.
[PMID: 7938165]
[31]
Jiang X, Yan Q, Liu F, et al. Chronic trans-astaxanthin treatment exerts antihyperalgesic effect and corrects co-morbid depressive like behaviors in mice with chronic pain. Neurosci Lett 2018; 662: 36-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2017.09.064] [PMID: 28982597]
[32]
Du X, Li YW, Ni Y. Research advancement and prospects of Qinglongyi in the treatment of pain. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi 2000; 25(1): 7-10.
[33]
Wang L, Zheng WF, Wang JH, Cui GY, Xia YQ. The study on the analgesic effects and mechanism of the total flavonoids from Daphne genkwa Sieb et. Zucc Ningxia Med J 2005; (1): 21-3.
[34]
Salter MW. Cellular signalling pathways of spinal pain neuroplasticity as targets for analgesic development. Curr Top Med Chem 2005; 5(6): 557-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026054367638] [PMID: 16022678]
[35]
Peng Y, Gu ZL, Zhang HL, Zhou WX, Guo CY. Studies on analgesic effect and mechanism of compound ginkgo capsule. Zhongguo Yesheng Zhiwu Ziyuan 2005; 24(3): 37-9.
[36]
Hong GX. Research methodology of analgesics. People's Medical Publishing House 2009.
[37]
Li JY, Yu YG, Wang QW, et al. Analgesic roles of aspirin eugenol ester and its mechanisms. Anim Husbandry Vet Med 2010; 42(10): 20-4.
[38]
Nie H, Sheng YJ, Zeng N, Wu JM. Mechanism of essential oil of radix Angelicae Dahuricae on neural transmitter of pain model of rats. Pharmacol Clin Chin Mater Med 2002; 18(3): 11-4.
[39]
Hu R. The isolation of imperation from Duhurica angelica root and the pharmacological research on imperatorin. Chengdu Univ Tradit Chin Med 2010.
[40]
Wang XY, Xu JY, Qiu DW, Huang LQ. Study on the anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanism of total saponins of psammosilene tunicoids. Zhongguo Shiyan Fangjixue Zazhi 2006; (5): 56-8.
[41]
Zhou XS, Zhou K. Studied on analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Clematis chinensis Osbeck. Chin Med Guides 2009; 6(11): 39-40.
[42]
Tao B, Zhang A, Lan R. Advances in studies on Analgesic Cukaloids and their analgesic mechanism. Lishizhen Med Mater Med Res 2011; 22(4): 957-60.
[43]
Yu S, Qin ZF, Shi J, Wei PK. Study on analgesic mechanism of Chinese medicine. J Zhejiang Univ Tradit Chin Med 2007; 31(5): 667-8.
[44]
Ma ZR. Application of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of cancer pain. Nei Mongol J Tradit Chin Med 2009; 28(17): 55-6.
[45]
Jones DS, Moss GP. Themed issue: Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery. J Pharm Pharmacol 2010; 62(6): 669-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/jpp.62.06.0001] [PMID: 20636852]
[46]
Fan Y, Zeng FB, Cui XR, Wan B, Yan CJ, Jin J. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of polysaccharides from Euonymus mupinensis. Chung Kuo Yao Hsueh Tsa Chih 2004; 39(1): 33-5.
[47]
Yue J, Peng R, Kong R, Zeng HG. Experimental studies on analgesic effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide. Chin Pharm J 2002; (10): 28-30.
[48]
Jiao LQ, Yu M, Jiao Y, Yang M, Liu DY. study on isolation purification, characterization, antiflammatory and antinociceptive effects of polysaccharides from Ganoderma Applanatum. China Pharm 2010; 13(5): 615-7.
[49]
Dai XH, Lv L, Liu HH. Study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of polysaccharides from opuntia dillenii haw. Anim Husbandry Vet Med 2012; 44(S1): 286-7.
[50]
Zhang WT. Study on pharmacological effects of Auricularia auricula polysaccharides. Jilin Agric Univ 2012.
[51]
Yang HW, Zhang XH, Chen WQ, Pan YF. Study on the antiinflammatory, analgesic and anti-fatigue effects of polysaccharides from Acanthopanax trifoliatus in rats and mice. China Pharm 2015; 26(31): 4364-7.
[52]
Wang RF, Chen P, Jiang F, Ma F, Tang J, Yang XL. Study on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of polysaccharides from Hubei Panax japonicas. Chin Hosp Pharm J 2012; 32(7): 491-4.
[53]
Xin XM, Wang DW, Wang YL, Wang H, Zhu YY, Gao YS. Study on analgesic effect of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv Polysaccharides. Mod J Integr Tradit Chin Western Med 2009; 18(5): 487-8.
[54]
Li WP, He LY, Ma ZL, Jiang FS, Ding ZS, Fan YS. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of polysaccharides from radix Achyranthis Sylvestris. Zhonghua Zhongyiyao Xuekan 2012; 30(4): 747-9.
[55]
Zhang Y, Zhang H, Han B, Chen W. Research on the extraction of polysaccharides in Capparis spinosa L. and anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Shihezi Daxue Xuebao Ziran Kexue Ban 2011; 29(2): 205-9.
[56]
Xie J. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and the mechanism of actions of ginsenoside Rg1. Chin Hosp Pharm J 2013; 33(19): 1592-7.
[57]
Cheng XY, Yao DW, Sun ZQ. Experimental study on analgetic action of herba gynostemmae’s total saponin. Guid J Tradit Chin Med Pharmaccol 1999; 5(10): 34-5.
[58]
Yang Q, Chen MZ. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and the mechanism of actions of astragalosides Acta Universitatis Medicinalis Anhui 2000; (5): 376
[59]
Clavelou P, Dallel R, Orliaguet T, Woda A, Raboisson P. The orofacial formalin test in rats: effects of different formalin concentrations. Pain 1995; 62(3): 295-301.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959(94)00273-H] [PMID: 8657429]
[60]
Xu M, Liu YJ, Min M, Chen HT, Xu L, Gu HQ. Analgesic effect and mechanism of gastrodin on the neuropathic pain in rats. Clin Med Eng 2014; 21(7): 837-9.
[61]
Goudet C, Chapuy E, Alloui A, Acher F, Pin JP, Eschalier A. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibit hyperalgesia in animal models of inflammation and neuropathic pain. Pain 2008; 137(1): 112-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2007.08.020] [PMID: 17900808]
[62]
Wang XY, Zhang Y, Xu JY, Qiu DW. The analgesic effect of total saponins of psammosilene tunicoids and its suppression of c-fos gene expression in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats. Zhongguo Shiyan Fangjixue Zazhi 2010; 16(3): 94-6.
[63]
Gao CH, Wu Y, Wang Y, et al. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of total glucosides of paeony powder-injection. Zhongyao Xinyao Yu Linchuang Yaoli 2002; (03): 163-5.
[64]
Lv X, Fang WR, Li YM, Liu LF, Li FW. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of clematichinenoside. Zhongguo Xin Yao Zazhi 2009; 18(16): 1535-9.
[65]
Gao CK, Gao J, Ma RL, Xu XX, Huang P, Ni SD. Research on analgesic and anti-inflammatory and invigorate circulation effects of Total Saponins of Achyranthes. Anhui Yiyao 2003; (4): 248-9.
[66]
Wang NP. Effects of glucosides of chaenomeles speciosa on pain. Anhui Medical University 2003.
[67]
Zhou ZM, Guo SM, He J, Dai WF, Luo WL, Li BC. Advances on analgesic traditional Chinese Medicine. Yunnan J Tradit Chin Med Mater Med 2007; 28(4): 52-4.
[68]
Yang GY, Ye F, Du SM, Chen KL, Zhang WM. A summary of the study of Bupleurum chinese. China Pharm 2011; 14(10): 1523-6.
[69]
Li GR, Gong LL, Lv YL, Liu LH. Research progress on pharmacological effects of asperosaponin VI. Chin J New Drugs Clin Rem 2014; 33(7): 477-80.
[70]
Zhang J, Xiao LW, Dai TJ, Zou JL, Shen Y, Zhan X. Study on the analgesic effect of Brucine and its mechanism. Chin J Tradit Med Sci Technol 2009; 16(5): 374-5.
[71]
Gong DH, Jiang YX, Zheng WH, Zhang JZ, Luo N. Effect of levo-tetrahydropalmatine on pain threshold in rats with chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain and spinal mechanisms. Pharmacol Clin Chin Mater Med 2013; 29(5): 27-9.
[72]
Wang NP, Wei W. Anti-inflammatory, immunological and analgesic effects of active constituents of Chinese traditional medicine. Zhongguo Yaolixue Tongbao 2003; 19(4): 366-9.
[73]
Wilson HD, Wilson JR, Fuchs PN. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment decreases inflammation and mechanical hypersensitivity in an animal model of inflammatory pain. Brain Res 2006; 1098(1): 126-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.04.088] [PMID: 16750177]
[74]
Yang YJ, Wang CM, Dang XW, Mei AM. Study on analgesic characteristics of total alkaloids of paparer mudicaul. Chin Hosp Pharm J 2006; 26(11): 1338-40.
[75]
Zhen P. Advances on Tetrandrine. J Zhangjiakou Med Coll 2004; 33(8): 79-82.
[76]
Du GF, He YY, Zhan JC, Jia LN, Yi YQ, Shen ZB. Advances in transdermal drug delivery system of the effective components on analgesia. Anhui Yiyao 2015; 19(1): 1-5.
[77]
Yao WX, Chen XP, Zhang YL. Preliminary study on the analgesic effect and the mechanism of 3-acetyl aconitine. Ningxia Med J 2014; 36(5): 388-90.
[78]
Yang XL, Yang DN, Yang QR, Zhu K, Zhang YC. Research advances of bulleyaconitine A. World Clin Drugs 2013; 34(2): 80-3.
[79]
Hao XY, Peng L, Ye L, Huang NH, Shen YM. [A study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica]. J Chin Integr Med 2004; 2(6): 450-2.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3736/jcim20040615] [PMID: 15539027]
[80]
Cai YT, Ju CY, Yan HK, Sun LQ. Experimental study on analgetic action of total alkaloid from Chelidonium majus. J Mudanjiang Med Univ 2011; 32(6): 29-30.
[81]
Wu M, Wang YY, Ai TM. Studies of analgesic effect and mechanism of total alkaloid extracted fromDactyl icapnos scandens. Chin Tradit Herbal Drugs 2003; 34(11): 1022-5.
[82]
Zhu JY, Meng ZQ, Ding G, Wang ZZ, Xiao W. Advances in studies of corydalis decumbens World Sci Technol/Modern Tradit Chinese Med Mater Med 2014; 16(12): 2713-9.
[83]
Liu L, Yu C, Xu L. Anti-inflammatory analgesic effect studies of total alkaloids from Leonurus Heterophyllus. Proceeding of Clinical Medicine 2008; 1(18): 934-5.
[84]
Liu YC, Gan X, Zhang YQ. Advances on natural drug evodiamine. Zhongguo Xiandai Zhongyao 2008; 10(7): 7-10.
[85]
Lin MJ, Yang XX. Study on the analgesic and anesthetic effect of lappaconitine in surgery induced pain rat. Strait Pharm J 2011; 23(4): 29-31.
[86]
Chen MY, Zhou LH, Zhang XD, Luo XG, Chen HS, Huang M. Antinociceptive effects of total Ervatamia yunnansis alkaloid in mice. J Pharm Pract 2006; 24(4): 203-5.
[87]
Bomholt SF, Mikkelsen JD, Blackburn-Munro G. Antinociceptive effects of the antidepressants amitriptyline, duloxetine, mirtazapine and citalopram in animal models of acute, persistent and neuropathic pain. Neuropharmacology 2005; 48(2): 252-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2004.09.012] [PMID: 15695164]
[88]
Han HB. Study on chemical constituents and pharmacognosy of Gelsemium elegans. Shenyang Pharmaceutical University 2007.
[89]
Zhang L, Zhao CH, Chen ZW, et al. The analgesic effects of total flavone of ginkgo biloba and its related mechanisms. Acta Universitatis Medicinalis Anhui 2001; 36(4): 263-6.
[90]
Yang WD, Hao YJ, Li HB, Sun W, Wu J. Effects of antiinflammation and ache easing of total alkaloid of cynanchum komarovii AI iljinski. J Ningxia Med Coll 2005; (3): 191-3.
[91]
Zhang BB. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of total flavonoids of Chuzhou chrysanthe and its mechanism. Anhui Med Univ 2013.
[92]
Qiu LY, Mao CQ. The research of analgestic action of total flavonoids of sparganium stoloniferum. Lishizhen Med Mater Res 2000; 11(4): 291-2.
[93]
Yang WP, Zhou ZM, Xiong YL, et al. The comparative study on main medical effect of total flavone in culture of saussurea medusa maxim and the wild one. Chin J Inform TCM 2006; 13(1): 32-5.
[94]
Shen Z. The analgesic effects and mechanism of total flavonoids of Dragon’s blood. South-Central University for Nationalities 2013.
[95]
Song XP, Chen ZW, Zhang JW, Ding B. Analgesic effects of total flavone of rhododenron and its mechanism. Zhong Yao Cai 2007; 30(2): 182-5.
[PMID: 17571769]
[96]
Sheng ZL. Studies on pharmakognosie and the pharmacy of the effective analgesic components from the root of astibe chinensis maxim. Heilongjiang Univ Chin Med 2006.
[97]
Dou HX, Gao YL. Advances in studies on chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Saposhnikovia divaricata. Inform Tradit Chin Med 2009; 26(2): 15-7.
[98]
Wang Q, Wang SF, Zhang YT, et al. Experimental study of the analgesic mechanism of total flavonoids of Rhizoma Arisaematis nanogel on walker induced bone cancer pain. SHJTCM 2015; 49(11): 62-6.
[99]
Zhang QJ, Zhao YM, Yang M, Wang Y. [Effects of flavone chemicals on the central nervous system]. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi 2001; 26(8): 511-4.
[PMID: 12820647]
[100]
Huang HS, Ma CG, Chen ZW. Research progress on the pharmacological effects of flavonoids. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi 2000; 25(10): 589-92.
[PMID: 12516448]
[101]
Cao WG, Zhang D, Zhang YB, Liu S. Study on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethylacetate extract from humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr. Pharmacol Clin Chin Mater Med 2010; 26(3): 31-3.
[102]
Wang YF, Chen XY, Han SY, et al. Experimental study on total flavones from buckwheat leaf in fighting pain and inflammation. Shanghai J Tradit Chin Med 2004; 38(11): 54-5.
[103]
Liu LM, Zhu JB, Dai YN, Feng SL. Anti-inflammatory effects of total flavones from lagotis brevituba maxim. China Pharm 2010; 13(4): 503-5.
[104]
Chen YF, Jiang T, Tang CP, Feng YF, Yang CY. Experimental study of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of total flavonoids from Alpinia officinarum Hance. J Guangdong Pharmaceut Coll 2009; 25(2): 188-91.
[105]
Hu XJ, Yin S, Yuan TT, Wang YJ, Huang ZR, Lu Y. Chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Carthamus tinctorius L. J Pharm Pract 2013; 31(3): 161-8.
[106]
Fang SL, Liu YC, Zhang QH, Chen DY, Li SJ. Study on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory Effects of Geniposide. Lishizhen Med Mater Med Res 2008; 19(6): 1374-6.
[107]
Chen L, Wang HB, Sun XL, Sun WJ. Study on the Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Gentiopicroside. Nat Prod Res 2008; 20(5): 903-6.
[108]
Deng YH, Liu YB, Luo SW, Li X, Deng JB. Study on isolation of α-cyperone and its analgesic and antipyretic effects. Zhongyao Xinyao Yu Linchuang Yaoli 2012; 23(06): 620-3.
[109]
Wu FF, Wang JZ, Huang NY, et al. Study on anti-dysmenorrhea effects and mechanism of bisabolangelone. Pharmacol Clin Chin Mater Med 2013; 29(5): 47-50.
[110]
Wang BB, Qi W, Wang LL, et al. Comparative study of chemical composition, antinociceptive effect and acute toxicity of the essential oils of three asarum drugs. J Chin Pharm Sci 2014; 23(7): 480-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5246/jcps.2014.08.063]
[111]
Li JH, Zeng N, Shen YJ. Pharmacological effects of Schizonepeta. Sichuan J Physiol Sci 2004; 26(3): 133-6.
[112]
Lin Q, Zhao AG, Chen JN, Lai XP, Gui SH, Fang CP. anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of ligustilide. Zhongguo Shiyan Fangjixue Zazhi 2011; 17(11): 165-8.
[113]
Zhang MF, Shen YQ. Research advances in clinical pharmacological effects on Amomi Fructus. Anti-Infect Pharm 2013; 10(1): 8-13.
[114]
Fang HL, Li WL, Ren BR, Liang CY, Liu Y. research advances on chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Mentha l. China Pharmaceut 2010; 19(10): 13-7.
[115]
Tan C, Jin Y, Xia Q. Experimental study of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of curdione. Chin J Bone Tumor Bone Dis 2009; 8(3): 168-70.
[116]
Kong XJ, Liu XW, Li JY, Yang YJ. Advance in pharmacological research of Eugenol. Hubei Agric Sci 2013; 52(3): 508-11.
[117]
Wang DC, Ma J, Kong ZF, Liu WH. Experimental study on the antipyretic-analgesic and anti-inflammatory of total coumarins from Peucedanum Praeruptorum Dunn. Zhongguo Zhongyiyao Xinxi Zazhi 2004; 11(8): 688-90.
[118]
Cai QY, Wei JJ, Li WR. Comparison of analgesic effect and active ingredient content of fructus evodiae extracts. Zhongyao Xinyao Yu Linchuang Yaoli 2014; 25(2): 179-82.
[119]
Ma YY, Li CH, Li LF, Zhao BS, Guo SY, Huo HR. Experimental study on antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions of cinnamaldehyde. Chin J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006; 11(12): 1336-9.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2020
Published on: 21 June, 2020
Page: [461 - 483]
Pages: 23
DOI: 10.2174/1566524019666191205111937
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 17
HTML: 5
EPUB: 1