Background: Cadmium (Cd2+) is considered to be one of the most important hazardous
heavy metals due to its toxicity for living organisms at low concentration levels. Therefore, the
estimation of trace Cd2+ in different types of various samples is a very important objective for
chemists using effective methods. In the present work, a novel, green, easy and fast ultrasoundassisted
ionic liquid-dispersive liquid phase microextraction technique (UA-IL-DLPME) was
developed to preconcentrate and determine trace quantities of cadmium (Cd2+) ions from real
samples, prior to detection by FAAS.
Methods: The proposed technique is based on utilization of ionic liquid (IL) (1-hexyl-3-
methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [HMIM][FAP]) as an extraction solvent
for Cd2+ ions after complexation with 2-(6-methylbenzothiazolylazo)-6-nitrophenol (MBTANP) at
pH 7.0. The impact of different analytical parameters on the microextraction efficiency was
investigated. The validation of the proposed procedure was verified by the test of two certified
reference materials (TMDA-51.3 fortified water, SRM spinach leaves 1570A) applying the standard
Results: In the range of 2.0-200 μg L−1, the calibration graph was linear. Limit of detection,
preconcentration factor and the relative standard deviation (RSD %, 100 μg L-1, n=5) as precision
was 0.1 μg L-1, 100 and 3.1%, respectively.
Conclusion: Green UA-IL-DLPME method was developed and applied to preconcentrate and determine
trace quantities of Cd2+ in real water, vegetables and hair samples with satisfactory results.