A Novel Hybrid Solar-wind Energy Conversion System for Remote Area Electrification

Author(s): Shailendra K. Gupta*, Rakesh K. Srivastava

Journal Name: Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Formerly Recent Patents on Electrical & Electronic Engineering

Volume 13 , Issue 6 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Remote area electrification is a social responsibility that needs to be catered by research fraternity. One of the most viable technology as a solution is the Renewable Energy Source (RES) based power generation. However, RES is intermittent and thus, mostly ineffective without an energy storage device. Energy storage device comes at increased cost and may not be a cost-effective solution to the problem.

Introduction: One solution that has been frequently proposed to reduce the intermittency of RES is hybridization. Hybridization of RES such as Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) with Solar Energy Conversion System (SECS) is the most basic solution offered owing to their complementary nature. Therefore, this paper sees SECS in the role of supporting WECS in regions with highly intermittent wind conditions. In this paper, a novel technique of hybridization of WECS with SECS has been proposed.

Methods: The basic idea of the paper is to control the dc-link voltage from the generation side by regulating the power generated by RES as per load demand using minimum components. The underlined principle is the relative lower time constant of solar panel and battery system in comparison to a wind turbine.

Results: The experimental results on the proposed system shows that the SECS supports the WECS at higher wind turbulence and low wind conditions.

Conclusion: This unique feature of the proposed system enables a WECS supported by a small rated SECS to attain high power reliability and thus, suitable for application such as remote area electrification.

Keywords: Renewable energy, hybrid solar-wind system (HSWS), weak-grid, field-weakening, permanent magnet synchronous generator, voltage control.

"Small wind world report., WWEA: Bonn, Germany, 2017. [Assessed: 03 Aug., 2019]",
UK Renewable, “Small and medium wind UK market report”, United Kingdom, March 2015. 03 Aug., 2019..
A. Orrell, N. Foster, S. Morris, J. Homer, D. Preziuso, and E. Poehlman, 2017 distribution wind market report., U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Wind Energy Technologies Office: United States of America, 2017. [Assessed: 03 aug., 2019.
“WIND TURBINES – Part 2: Design Requirements for Small Wind Turbines”, INTERNATIONAL STANDARD, IEC Geneva, Switzerland, Second edition 2006-03, 2006. . 03 Aug, 2019.
S.K. Gupta, and R.K. Srivastava, “Roof-top wind energy conversion system”, J. Institution Eng..India: Series B.:, pp. 1-10:, 2018.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40031 -018-0346-4]
"IEA Wind Task 27, Small wind turbines in high turbulence sites".Internationale Klein Wind Tagung, Vienna (Austria), , 2019.
"“Renewables 2017 Global Status Report”, REN21 Secretariat, Paris, 2017, 03 Aug.,", 2019.
W. Zhou, C. Lou, Z. Li, L. Lu, and H. Yang, "Current status of research on optimum sizing of stand-alone hybrid solar–wind power generation systems", Appl. Energy, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 380-389, 2010.
T. Som, and N. Chakraborty, "Studies on economic feasibility of an autonomous power delivery system utilizing alternative hybrid distributed energy resources", IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 172-181, 2014.
M.A.Y. Jahromi, S.M. Barakati, and S. Farahat, "An efficient sizing method with suitable energy management strategy for hybrid renewable energy systems", Int. Trans. Electr. Energy Syst., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1473-1492, 2014.
N.K. Paliwal, A.K. Singh, N.K. Singh, and P. Kumar, "Optimal sizing and operation of battery storage for economic operation of hybrid power system using artificial bee colony algorithm", Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst., vol. 29, no. 1, . 2019.
E. Christina, Hoicka Ian, and H. Rowlands , "Solar and wind resource complementarity: Advancing options for renewable electricity integration in Ontario, Canada", Renew. Energy, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 97-107, 2011.
B.K. Sovacool, "The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity 1341 generators: Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?", Util. Policy, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 288-296, 2009.
Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment: Experience and Practices in the United States. Technical report, NREL., 2014.
F. Asghar, M. Talha, and S.H. Kim, "Fuzzy logic Q based intelligent frequency and voltage stability control system for standalone microgrid", Int. Trans .Electr. Energ. Syst., vol. 28, no. 4, . 2018.
Y. Zhang, C-K. Lim, Z. Dai, G. Yu, J.W. Haus, H. Zhang, and P.N. Prasad, "Photonics and optoelectronics using nano-structured hybrid perovskite media and their optical cavities", Phys. Rep., vol. 795, pp. 1-51, 2019.
A. Chatterjee, K.B. Mohanty, K. Thakre, and V.S. Kommukuri, "Grid voltage sensorless control of single phase grid tied inverter for renewable energy systems applications", Electr. Power Compon. Syst., vol. 46, no. 16-17, pp. 1795-1807, 2018.
A. Chatterjee, K. Mohanty, V.S. Kommukuri, and K. Thakre, "Design and experimental investigation of digital model predictive current controller for single phase grid integrated photovoltaic systems", Renew. Energy, vol. 108, pp. 438-448, 2017.
A. Chatterjee, K. Mohanty, V.S. Kommukuri, and K. Thakre, "Model predictive current controller for performance enhancement of grid-integrated single-phase photovoltaic distributed generation plants", Trans. Inst. Meas. Contr., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 762-775, 2016.
R. Wang, X. Li, Z. Wang, and H. Zhang, "Electrochemical analysis graphite/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries: p-Toluenesulfonyl isocyanate as electrolyte additive", Nano Energ, vol. 34, pp. 131-140, 2017.
Y. Zhou, M. Zhang, Z. Guo, L. Miao, S-T. Han, Z. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Zhang, and Z. Peng, "Recent advances in black phosphorus-based photonics, electronics, sensors and energy devices", Mater. Horiz., vol. 6, pp. 997-1019, 2017.
M. Qiu, Z.T. Sun, D.K. Sang, X.G. Han, H. Zhang, and C.M. Niu, "Current progress for black phosphorus material and its application in electrochemical energy storage", Nanoscales, vol. 36, pp. 13384-13403, 2017.
H. Ameli, E. Abbasi, M.T. Ameli, and G. Strbac, "A fuzzy-logic-based control methodology for secure operation of a microgrid in interconnected and isolated modes", Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst., vol. 27, no. 10, . 2017.
X. Yuan, F. Wang, and D. Boroyevich, "DC-link voltage control of a full power converter for wind generator operating in weakgrid systems", IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 2178-2192, 2009.
J. Azzouzi, G. Barakat, and B. Dakyo, "Analytical modeling of an axial flux permanent magnet synchronous generator for wind energy application", IEEE International Conference on Electric Machines and Drives San Antonio, TX, USA , pp. 1255-1260, 2005..
S. Alepuz, A. Calle, S. Busquets-Monge, S. Kouro, and B. Wu, "Use of stored energy in pmsg rotor inertia for lowvoltage ride-through in back-to-back npc converter-based wind power systems", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 5, 2013.
J.F. Conroy, and R. Watson, "Low-voltage ride-through of a full converter wind turbine with permanent magnet generator", IET Renew. Power Gener., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 182-189, 2007.
"A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms", IET Renew. Power Gener., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 308-332, 2009.
S. Heier, Grid integration of wind energy conversion systems., 2nd ed Wiley, 2006.
S.K. Gupta, and R.K. Srivastava, "LVRT capability evaluation of variable-flux PMSG based WECS", IEEE Transport. Elect. Conf. (ITEC-India), Pune, pp. 1-5 20172017..
K. Sitapati, and R. Krishnan, "Performance comparisons of radial and axial field, permanent-magnet, brushless machines", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1219-1226, 2001.
F.G. Capponi, G. De Donato, and F. Caricchi, "Recent advances in axial-flux permanent-magnet machine technology", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 2190-2205, 2012.
M. Rahimi, "Mathematical modeling, dynamic response analysis, and control of PMSGQbased wind turbines operating with an alternative control structure in power control mode", Int .Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst.,, vol. 27, no. 12, . 2017.
M. Aydin, S. Huang, and T.A. Lipo, "A new axial flux surface mounted permanent magnet machine capable of field control", In: , Conference Record of the 2002 IEEE Industry Applications Conference., . vol. 2, pp. 1250-1257, 2002..
M. Aydin, S. Huang, and T.A. Lipo, "Design, analysis, and control of a hybrid field-controlled axial-flux permanent-magnet motor", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 78-87, 2010.
M. Ayadin, T.A. Lipo, and S. Huang, "Field controlled axial-flux permanent magnet electrical machine", US Patent, US20070046124A1, . March 1, 2007..
E. Mese, M. Ayaz, and M. Murat Tezcan, "Design considerations of a multitasked electric machine for automotive applications", Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 131, pp. 147-158, 2016.
D.A. Gonzalez-Lopez, J.A. Tapia, R. Wallace, and A. Valenzuela, "Design and test of an axial flux permanent-magnet machine with field control capability", IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 2168-2173, 2008.
R. Krishnan, "Permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC motor drives, special indian edition", CRS press Taylors & Francis Group., , vol. ISBN-13: 978-1-498-76745-3,. . pp. 371-376, 2010. .
T.S. Kwon, S.K. Sul, L. Alberti, and N. Bianchi, "Design and control of an axial-flux machine for a wide flux-weakening operation region", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1258-1266, 2009.
""Wind power generation system", US Patent, US6541877B2, April 1,", 2003.
E. Kauppi, "Permanent magnet motor with field weakening ", US Patent, US8288982B2, May 24.. 2012.
V. Ostovic, "Field controlled in permanent magnet machine, ", US Patent, US6800977B1, October 5.. 2004.
""Dual-stator, flux switching permanent magnet machine", US Patent, US10020717B2, February 18.,", 2016.
H. Nakai, K. Hiramoto, H. Ohtani, and Y. Inaguma, "Novel field weakening control method for an axial flux permanent magnet motor using an adjustable gap length",
H. Zhan, Z.Q. Zhu, and Z.Z. Wu, "Active voltage regulation of partitioned stator switched flux permanent magnet generator supplying isolated passive load."In , IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition., ECCE: Milwaukee, WI, pp. 1-8. 2016.
W. Hua, G. Zhang, and M. Cheng, "Flux-regulation theories and principles of hybrid-excited flux-switching machines", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 5359-5369, 2015.
D.J. Evans, Z.Q. Zhu, H.L. Zhan, Z.Z. Wu, and X. Ge, "Flux-weakening control performance of partitioned stator-switched flux pm machines", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 2350-2359, 2016.
Z.Q. Zhu, M.M.J. Al-Ani, X. Liu, and B. Lee, "A mechanical flux weakening method for switched flux permanent magnet machines", IEEE Trans. Energ. Convers., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 806-815, 2015.
L. Del Ferraro, F. Caricchi, F.G. Capponi, and G. De Donato, "Axial-flux PM starter/alternator machine with a novel mechanical device for extended flux weakening capabilities", In: , Conference Record of the 2004 IEEE Industry Applications Conference,39th IAS Annual Meeting, vol. Vol.3, pp. 1413-1419 , 2004.
F. Giulii Capponi, R. Terrigi, F. Caricchi, and L. Del Ferraro, "Active output voltage regulation for an ironless axial-flux PM automotive alternator with electromechanical flux weakening", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 1785-1793, 2009.
B.H. Smith, "Theory and performance of a twin stator induction machine", IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus Syst, vol. PAS-85, no. 2, pp. 123-131, 1966.
S.K. Gupta, and R.K. Srivastava, "Experimental evaluation of VF controlled off-grid generating system", In: , IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES), Trivandrum, India , pp. 1-5, 2016..
S.K. Gupta, and R.K. Srivastava, "DC-link voltage regulation of full-power converter for WECS in weak-grid using a variable-flux dual-stator PMSG", In: , IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES) Chennai, India, pp. 1-6, 2018..
M.G. Say, "The performance and design of alternating current machines", Ed. 2., Sir Issac Pitman & Sons., 1948..
S.K. Gupta, R.K. Srivastava, and S.N. Mahendra, "Voltage regulation of dual stator permanent magnet synchronous generator", IEEE Inter. Conf. ITEC, Chennai, pp. 1-6 , 2015.
S.K. Gupta, A. Dwivedi, and R.K. Srivastava, "Fabrication of dual-stator permanent magnet synchronous generator", IEEE Inter. Conf. INDICON New Delhi, India, pp. 1-5, 2015..
S.K. Gupta, and R.K. Srivastava, "Comparison of variable-flux PMSG for extended speed-range based on magnet arc-length to pole-pitch ratio", In: ; IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference (ITEC-India) Pune, India,, pp. 1-5, 2017..
M.S. Carmeli, F. Castelli-Dezza, M. Mauri, G. Marchegiani, and D. Rosati, "Control strategies and configurations of hybrid distributed generation systems", Renew. Energy, vol. 41, pp. 294-305, 2012.
M. Bendaoud, S. Ladide, A. El Fathi, H. Hihi, and K. Faitah, "Fuzzy-logic peak current control strategy for extracting maximum power of small wind power generators", Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst.,, vol. 29, no. 6, . 2019.
B. Ge, and F.Z. Peng, "Current balancerQbased gridQconnected parallel inverters for high power windQpower system", Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 108-124, 2014.
K.B. Mohanty, K. Thakre, A. Chatterjee, A.K. Nayak, and V.S. Kommukuri, "Reduction in components using modified topology for asymmetrical multilevel inverter", World J. Eng, 2019.
K. Thakre, K.B. Mohanty, A. Chatterjee, and V.S. Kommukuri, "A modified circuit for symmetric and asymmetric multilevel inverter with reduced components count", Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst., vol. 29, no. 6, . 2019.
V.P. Chandran, S. Murshid, and B. Singh, "Design and analysis of improved second order generalized integratorQbased voltage and frequency controller for permanent magnet synchronous generator operating in smallQhydro system feeding singleQphase loads", Int .Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst.,, vol. 29, no. 5, . 2019.
A. Sabir, "A novel lowQvoltage rideQthrough capable energy management scheme for a gridQconnected hybrid photovoltaicQ fuel cell power source", Int. Trans. Electr. Energ. Syst.,, vol. 29, no. 2, . 2019.
J.C.F. Soltoski, P.T.P. dos Santos, and C.H.I. Font, "Development of a small scale wind turbine emulator work bench", In: , 12th IEEE Int. Conf. Indust. Appl. (INDUSCON) Curitiba, Brazil , pp. 1-8, 2016..
R.P. Ruilope, "Modelling and control of stepper motors for high accuracy positioning systems used in radioactive environments", Thesis (Doctoral), E.T.S.I. Industriales (UPM),, 2014.
J. David, "Dynamic Analysis of Permanent Magnet Stepping Motors", National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington D.C March,. 1969. 2019.
R. Krishnan, "Electric motor drives: modelling, analysis and control", Prentice-Hall, ISBN-0130910147. 2001.
P. Mercorelli, "An adaptive and optimized switching observer for sensorless control of an electromagnetic valve actuator in camless internal combustion engines", Asian J. Control (Wiley & Sons Publishing),, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 959-973. 2014.
P. Mercorelli, "Robust adaptive soft landing control of an electromagnetic valve actuator for camless engines", Asian J. Control (Wiley & Sons Publishing),. vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1299-1312, 2016..
P. Mercorelli, and N. Werner, "An adaptive resonance regulator design for motion control of intake valves in camless engine systems", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 3413-3422, 2017.
I.J. Nagrath, and M. Gopal, "Control System Engineering.", 5th ed New Age International Publishers, pp. 269-423. 2008.
H. Dharmawardena, and K. Uhlen, "Modeling variable speed wind turbine for power system dynamic studies", In: ; IEEE Students Conference on Engineering and Systems (SCES) Allahabad, pp. 1-6, 2015..
W. Li, D. Xu, W. Zhang, and H. Ma, "Research on wind turbine emulation based on DC motor", In: ; 2nd IEEE Conf. Indust. Electron. Appl. Harbin, China, 2007. pp. 2589-2593..

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Page: [906 - 917]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/2213111607666191204151926
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 9