Background: Besides the well-known positive effect on the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular
diseases, in the latest decades growing evidence has accumulated on the beneficial effects
of MD on various aspects of health outcomes. Nevertheless, data concerning the existence of a direct
positive effect of MD, irrespective of its beneficial effect on body weight, in osteo-articular diseases,
are still controversial. In osteo-articular diseases, a pro-inflammatory environment is highlighted,
with an increased systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Objective: Our objective is to investigate the effects of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and
Conclusion: Many foods included in MD, have anti-inflammatory properties, due to the presence of
nutrients, such as polyunsaturated (PUFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fats. The two types of polyunsaturated
fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6, have opposing effects on the inflammatory process.
Omega-6 stimulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while omega-3 fatty acids exert
anti-inflammatory effects, including significant reductions in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Some studies have shown that the dietary pattern of MD consumption has an important role in
the prevention and development of inflammatory arthritis. Nevertheless, the possible influence of
MD on chronic osteo-articular diseases is very limited, this review updates the main experimental
and clinical evidences concerning the potential beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet on the
most diffuse osteo-articular chronic and degenerative joint disease.