Aging has been considered a progressive decrease of a living organism homeodynamics , which indicates a reduction of the psycho-biological resilience. This narrative review provides an overview on the available literature related to the holistic approach of integrative medicine, psychoneuroendocrineimmunology (PNEI) and hormesis in aging process. On the basis of pathophysiology of cell senescence and of chronic degenerative diseases, possible preventive/therapeutic pathways have been examined. Chronic low grade cellular inflammation and chronic stress have been shown as the general interlinked factors inducing aging, on the basis of complex biochemical, cell and multi-organ derangements. The main cell degenerative processes which have been related to aging are: altered mitochondria DNA/metabolism, excessive oxidative stress, glycation, alteration of autophagy and proteasome, genome alterations. Literature about longevity-targeting interventions, beyond conventional medicine, describes a spectrum of possible measures to improve psycho-biological resilience, based on PNEI paradigm, on hormesis and upon mitochondria-targeted interventions. Calorie restriction, exercising, fasting, nutraceuticals, sleep regulation, specific breathing, meditation and psychotherapy are discussed, among others.
Keywords: Psychoneuroendocrineimmunology, Hormesis, Resilience, Mitochondria, Nutrition, Fasting, Nutraceuticals , Physical activity, Stress, Aging, Sleep
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