Aims: The purpose of this study was to screen the bacteria producing cellulase enzymes and their bioinformatics studies.
Background: Cellulose is a long-chain polymer of glucose that hydrolyzes by cellulases to glucose molecules. In order to design the new biotechnological applications, some strategies have been used as increasing the efficiency of enzyme production, generating cost-effective enzymes, producing stable enzymes and identification of new strains.
Objective: On the other hand, some bacteria special features have made them suitable candidates for the identification of the new source of enzymes. In this regard, some native strains of bacteria were screened.
Method: These bacteria were grown on a culture containing the liquid M9 media containing CMC to ensure the synthesis of cellulase. The formation of a clear area in the culture medium indicated decomposition of cellulose. In the following, the DNA of these bacteria were extracted and their 16S rDNA genes were amplified.
Result: The results show that nine samples were able to synthesize cellulase. In following, these strains were identified using 16S rDNA. The results show that these screened bacteria belonged to the Bacillus sp., Alcaligenes sp., Alcaligenes sp., and Enterobacter sp.conclusionThe enzyme activity analysis shows that the Bacillus toyonensis, Bacillus sp. strain XA15-411 Bacillus cereus have produced the maximum yield of cellulases. However, these amounts of enzyme production in these samples are not proportional to their growth rate. As the bacterial growth chart within 4 consecutive days shows that the Alcaligenes sp. Bacillus cereus, Bacillus toyonensis, Bacillus sp. strain XA15-411 have a maximum growth rate. The study of the phylogenetic tree also shows that Bacillus species are more abundant in the production of cellulase enzyme. These bioinformatics analyses show that the Bacillus species have different evolutionary relationships and evolved in different evolutionary time.
Other: However, for maximum cellulase production by this bacteria, some information as optimum temperature, optimum pH, carbon and nitrogen sources are needed for the ideal formulation of media composition. The cellulase production is closely controlled in microorganisms and the cellulase yields appear to depend on a variety of factors. However, the further studies are needed for cloning, purification and application of these new microbial cellulases in the different commercial fields as in food, detergent, and pharmaceutical, paper, textile industries and also various chemical industries. However, these novel enzymes can be further engineered through rational design or using random mutagenesis techniques.