Over the past decade, increasing attention has been paid to the exploration of environmentalfriendly
and alternative resources to prepare basic chemicals for relieving the stress of fossil resources
and environmental issues. Lactic acid (LA, 2-hydroxypropanoic acid), the biomass-derived platform
molecule, has been used intensively in food, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Considering the fermentation
method for lactic acid production possesses environmental impact and high-cost issues, chemocatalytic
approaches to manufacturing LA from biomass have attracted much attention due to higher selectivities
and lower costs. This paper emphasizes a review on the state-of-the-art production of LA from triose,
hexose, cellulose and other biomass over heterogeneous acidic and alkaline catalysts.