In the last decade, extensive research has provided consistent advances in molecular biology and “omics”
science (genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics), which have led to the detailed characterization of the
etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, and subtypes of many diseases. Based on these developments, the concept of
precision medicine was established.
About a quarter of medical consultations related to primary care in children involves respiratory problems. About 10% of
the cases are asthma, while the other most important respiratory diseases includes bronchiolitis, acute bronchitis and
respiratory infections. Today, beyond the most common respiratory pathology, it is appropriate to discuss what are the
novelties in the management of more complex, frequent and infrequent, pathologies because they are those in which it is
possible to implement the concept of precision medicine.