Growth Factors as Tools in Photoreceptor Cell Regeneration and Vision Recovery

Author(s): Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Mana Shojapour, Zahra Sadat Aghili, Samira Asgharzade*

Journal Name: Current Drug Targets

Volume 21 , Issue 6 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Photoreceptor loss is a major cause of blindness around the world. Stem cell therapy offers a new strategy in retina degenerative disease. Retinal progenitors can be derived from embryonic stem cells (ESC) in vitro, but cannot be processed to a mature state. In addition, the adult recipient retina presents a very different environment than the photoreceptor precursor donor.

It seems that modulation of the recipient environment by ectopic development regulated growth factors for transplanted cells could generate efficient putative photoreceptors. The purpose of this review article was to investigate the signaling pathway of growth factors including: insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), fibroblast growth factors (FGF), Nerve growth factor (NGF), Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Taurin and Retinoic acid (RA) involved in the differentiation of neuroretina cell, like; photoreceptor and retinal progenitor cells. Given the results available in the related literature, the differentiation efficacy of ESCs toward the photoreceptor and retinal neurons and the important role of growth factors in activating signaling pathways such as Akt, Ras/Raf1/ and ERKs also inhibit the ASK1/JNK apoptosis pathway. Manipulating differentiated culture, growth factors can influence photoreceptor transplantation efficiency in retinal degenerative disease.

Keywords: Differentiation, embryonic stem cells, growth factor, photoreceptor, fibroblast, taurin and Retinoic Acid (RA).

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VOLUME: 21
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Year: 2020
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