Globally, the population over the age of 60 is growing fast, but people age in different
ways. Frailty, shown by the accumulation of age-related deficits, is a state of increased vulnerability
to adverse outcomes among people of the same chronological age. Ageing results in a decline in
diversity and homeostasis of microbiomes, and gut flora changes are related to health deficit accumulation
and adverse health outcomes. In older people, health deficits including inappropriate intake,
sarcopenia, physical inactivity, polypharmacy, and social vulnerability are factors associated
with gut dysbiosis. The use of probiotics and prebiotics is a cost-effective and widely available
intervention. Intake of probiotics and prebiotics may improve the homeostasis of gut microflora and
prevent frailty and unhealthy aging. However, health effects vary among probiotics and prebiotics
and among individual populations. This narrative review summarizes recent evidence about the
relationship between prebiotic and probiotic consumption with health outcomes in older people.
Keywords: Probiotics, prebiotics, gut microbiota, frailty, ageing, microflora.
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