p-Cymene Modulate Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Murine Macrophages: Potential Implication in Atherosclerosis

Author(s): Tong Wu, Zahra Mazhar, Dhuha Alsayrafi, Mahdi Garelnabi*

Journal Name: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents

Volume 18 , Issue 2 , 2020

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Graphical Abstract:


Background: p-Cymene (p-CYM) is a common chemical used in air fresheners.

Objective: The study was designed to investigate the molecular effect of p-CYM on macrophages.

Materials and Methods: Macrophages (RAW 264.7) were treated with p-CYM (50 uM/L, 150 uM/L and 250 uM/L) for 6 hours, and 24 hours). Gene involved in inflammation, such as the Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), and the Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) and other genes known for their antioxidant activity such as the Paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) were analyzed.

Results: Cells treated with p-CYM have shown 30% up-regulation of MCP-1 after 24 hour of exposure; and also a differential up-regulation of TNF-α. However, treatment with p-CYM has resulted in a considerable (37%) dose-dependent downregulation of PON-1 after 24 hours of exposure. PON-1 is known for its antioxidant properties protecting High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) from oxidation.

Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that exposure to p-CYM over time promotes oxidative stress by downregulating antioxidants genes as shown in PON-1 and also stimulates inflammation, a key process during the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, p-Cymene, macrophages, High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL).

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Article Details

Year: 2020
Page: [151 - 157]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/1871525717666191118112310

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