The Frequency of HIV-1 Infection in Iranian Children and Determination of the Transmitted Drug Resistance in Treatment-Naïve Children

Author(s): Maryam Jarchi, Farah Bokharaei-Salim*, Maryam Esghaei, Seyed Jalal Kiani, Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Angila Ataei-Pirkooh, Arezoo Marjani, Hossein Keyvani

Journal Name: Current HIV Research

Volume 17 , Issue 6 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: The advent of resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1 is a barrier to the success of the ARTs.

Objective: In this study, the abundance of HIV-1 infection in Iranian children, and also detection of the TDR in naïve HIV-1 infected pediatric (under 12 years old) were evaluated.

Materials: From June 2014 to January 2019, a total of 544 consecutive treatment-naïve HIV-1- infected individuals enrolled in this study. After RNA extraction, amplification, and sequencing of the HIV-1 pol gene, the DRM and phylogenetic analysis were successfully performed on the plasma specimens of the ART-naïve HIV-1-infected-children under 12 years old. The DRMs were recognized using the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database.

Results: Out of the 544 evaluated treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals, 15 (2.8%) cases were children under 12 years old. The phylogenetic analyses of the amplified region of pol gene indicated that all of the 15 HIV-1-infected pediatric patients were infected by CRF35_AD, and a total of 13.3% (2/15) of these children were infected with HIV-1 variants with SDRMs (one child harbored two related SDRMs [D67N, V179F], and another child had three related SDRMs [M184V, T215F, and K103N]), according to the last algorithm of the WHO. No PIs-related SDRMs were observed in HIV-1-infected children.

Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that a total of 13.3% of treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected Iranian pediatrics (under 12 years old) were infected with HIV-1 variants with SDRMs. Therefore, it seems that screening to recognize resistance-associated mutations before the initiation of ARTs among Iranian children is essential for favorable medication efficacy and dependable prognosis.

Keywords: HIV-1, antiretroviral therapy (ART), drug resistance mutations (DRMs), HIV-1- infected, Treatment-naïve Children, transmitted drug resistance (TDR).

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VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/1570162X17666191106111211
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