Background and Objective: Coronary bypass operations are commonly performed for the
treatment of ischemic heart diseases. Coronary artery bypass surgery with autologous human saphenous
vein maintains its importance as a commonly used therapy for advanced atherosclerosis. Vascular
inflammation-related intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerotic progress have major roles in the pathogenesis
of saphenous vein graft disease.
Methods: In our study, we investigated the effect of anacardic acid (AA), which is a bioactive phytochemical
in the shell of Anacardium occidentale, on atherosclerosis considering its inhibitory effect on
NF-κB. We observed relative ICAM-1 and NF-κB mRNA levels by qRT-PCR method in a TNF-α-
induced inflammation model of saphenous vein endothelial cell culture after 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 μM of
AA were applied to the cells. In addition, protein levels of ICAM-1 and NF-κB were evaluated by immunofluorescent
staining. The results were compared between different concentrations of AA, and also
with the control group.
Results: It was found that 5 μM, 1 μM and 0.5 μM of AA had toxic effects, while cytotoxicity decreased
when 0.1 μM of AA was applied both alone and with TNF-α. When AA was applied with TNF-α, there
was a decrease and suppression in NF-κB expression compared with the TNF-α group. TNF-α-induced
ICAM-1 expression was significantly reduced more in the AA-applied group than in the TNF-α group.
Conclusion: In accordance with our results, it can be said that AA has a protective role in the pathogenesis
of atherosclerosis and hence in saphenous vein graft disease.