The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infection remains a persistent predicament
for the State of Texas, ranking seventh among the most documented HIV cases in the United States.
In this regard, the Rio Grande Valley (RGV) in South Texas is considered as one of the least investigated
areas of the state with respect to HIV infection and HIV associated comorbidities. Considering
the 115% increase in average HIV incidence rates per 100,000 within the RGV from 2007-2015,
it is worth characterizing this population with respect to their HIV-1 infection, HIV-1 Associated
Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), and the association of treatment with combined antiretroviral
therapy (cART). Moreover, the increased rate of Type-2 Diabetes (T2D) in the RGV population is
intertwined with that of HIV-1 infection facing challenges due to the lack of knowledge about prevention
to inadequate access to healthcare. Hence, the role of T2D in the development of HAND
among the people living with HIV (PLWH) in the RGV will be reviewed to establish a closer link
between T2D and HAND in cART-treated patients of the RGV.
Keywords: HIV-1, T2D, Hispanics, cART, HAND, diabetes, incidence rate, prevalence rate, CNS, Brain, MoCA, MMSE.
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