Epigenetics, Gender, and Sex in the Diagnosis of Depression

Author(s): Lewis Mehl-Madrona*, Patrick McFarlane, Barbara Mainguy

Journal Name: Current Psychiatry Research and Reviews
Formerly: Current Psychiatry Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 4 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: A marked sexual dimorphism exists in psychiatric diagnoses. Culture derived gender bias in diagnostic criteria is one explanation. Adverse childhood events, including sexual and physical abuse, are more reliable and consistent predictors of later psychiatric diagnoses, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Some interesting interactions between genes and experience have been uncovered, but the primary effect appears to be epigenetic with life experience altering gene expression and being transmitted to subsequent generations.

Objectives: To determine if reconceptualizing depression as encompassing both internalizing and externalizing strategies would eliminate gender differences in the diagnosis of depression.

Methods: We reviewed 74 life stories of patients, collected during a study of the effect of physicians’ knowing patients’ life stories on the quality of the doctor-patient relationship. Looking at diagnoses, the prevalence of women to men was 2.9 to 1. We redefined depression as a response to being in a seemingly hopeless situation accompanied by despair, either externalizing ((more often diagnosed as substance use disorders, impulse control disorders, antisocial personality disorder, or bipolar disorder) or internalizing (the more standard diagnosis of depression). Then we reviewed these life stories from that perspective to determine how many would be diagnosed as depressed.

Results: With this reconceptualization of depression, the sex ratio changed to 1.2 to 1.

Conclusions: From this perspective, men and women are equally likely to respond to hopelessness, though men are more socialized to externalize and women to internalize. Considering depression in this way may help to better identify men at risk for suicide.

Keywords: Epigenetics, sexual dimorphism, depression, gender, genetics, hormones, culture, adverse, childhood experience, child abuse.

Seeman MV. Psychopathology in women and men: focus on female hormones. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154(12): 1641-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.154.12.1641] [PMID: 9396940]
Waddington CH. The epigenotype. Int J Epidemiol 2012; 41(1): 10-3.
Hodes GE, Walker DM, Labonté B, Nestler EJ, Russo SJ. Understanding the epigenetic basis of sex differences in depression. J Neurosci Res 2017; 95(1-2): 692-702.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23876] [PMID: 27870456]
McCarthy MM, Auger AP, Bale TL, et al. The epigenetics of sex differences in the brain. J Neurosci 2009; 29(41): 12815-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3331-09.2009] [PMID: 19828794]
Jenuwein T, Allis CD. Translating the histone code. Science 2001; 293(5532): 1074-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1063127] [PMID: 11498575]
Takai D, Jones PA. Comprehensive analysis of CpG islands in human chromosomes 21 and 22. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002; 99(6): 3740-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.052410099] [PMID: 11891299]
Bestor TH. The DNA methyltransferases of mammals. Hum Mol Genet 2000; 9(16): 2395-402.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/9.16.2395] [PMID: 11005794]
Hervouet E, Vallette FM, Cartron PF. Dnmt3/transcription factor interactions as crucial players in targeted DNA methylation. Epigenetics 2009; 4(7): 487-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/epi.4.7.9883] [PMID: 19786833]
Weaver IC, Meaney MJ, Szyf M. Maternal care effects on the hippocampal transcriptome and anxiety-mediated behaviors in the offspring that are reversible in adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103(9): 3480-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0507526103] [PMID: 16484373]
Weber M, Schübeler D. Genomic patterns of DNA methylation: targets and function of an epigenetic mark. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2007; 19(3): 273-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2007.04.011] [PMID: 17466503]
Li E, Bestor TH, Jaenisch R. Targeted mutation of the DNA methyltransferase gene results in embryonic lethality. Cell 1992; 69(6): 915-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(92)90611-F] [PMID: 1606615]
Morgan CP, Bale TL. Early prenatal stress epigenetically programs dysmasculinization in second-generation offspring via the paternal lineage. J Neurosci 2011; 31(33): 11748-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1887-11.2011] [PMID: 21849535]
Sun H, Kennedy PJ, Nestler EJ. Epigenetics of the depressed brain: role of histone acetylation and methylation. Neuropsychopharmacology 2013; 38(1): 124-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2012.73] [PMID: 22692567]
Dalton VS, Kolshus E, McLoughlin DM. Epigenetics and depression: return of the repressed. J Affect Disord 2014; 155: 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2013.10.028] [PMID: 24238955]
Clancy S, Brown W. Translation: DNA to mRNA to protein. Nature Education 2008; 1(1): 101.
Szyf M. Targeting DNA methylation in cancer. Bull Cancer 2006; 93(9): 961-72.
[PMID: 16980240]
Hayes JJ, Hansen JC. Nucleosomes and the chromatin fiber. Curr Opin Genet Dev 2001; 11(2): 124-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-437X(00)00168-4] [PMID: 11250133]
Khorasanizadeh S. The nucleosome: from genomic organization to genomic regulation. Cell 2004; 116(2): 259-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00044-3] [PMID: 14744436]
Berger SL. The complex language of chromatin regulation during transcription. Nature 2007; 447(7143): 407-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05915] [PMID: 17522673]
Crosio C, Heitz E, Allis CD, Borrelli E, Sassone-Corsi P. Chromatin remodeling and neuronal response: multiple signaling pathways induce specific histone H3 modifications and early gene expression in hippocampal neurons. J Cell Sci 2003; 116(Pt 24): 4905-14.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.00804] [PMID: 14625384]
Eberharter A, Becker PB. Histone acetylation: a switch between repressive and permissive chromatin. Second in review series on chromatin dynamics. EMBO Rep 2002; 3(3): 224-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/embo-reports/kvf053] [PMID: 11882541]
Grunstein M. Histone acetylation in chromatin structure and transcription. Nature 1997; 389(6649): 349-52.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/38664] [PMID: 9311776]
Hebbes TR, Thorne AW, Crane-Robinson C. A direct link between core histone acetylation and transcriptionally active chromatin. EMBO J 1988; 7(5): 1395-402.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1460-2075.1988.tb02956.x] [PMID: 3409869]
Korzus E, Rosenfeld MG, Mayford M. CBP histone acetyltransferase activity is a critical component of memory consolidation. Neuron 2004; 42(6): 961-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2004.06.002] [PMID: 15207240]
Pile LA, Spellman PT, Katzenberger RJ, Wassarman DA. The SIN3 deacetylase complex represses genes encoding mitochondrial proteins: implications for the regulation of energy metabolism. J Biol Chem 2003; 278(39): 37840-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M305996200] [PMID: 12865422]
Onishchenko N, Karpova N, Sabri F, Castrén E, Ceccatelli S. Long-lasting depression-like behavior and epigenetic changes of BDNF gene expression induced by perinatal exposure to methylmercury. J Neurochem 2008; 106(3): 1378-87.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05484.x] [PMID: 18485098]
Roth TL, Lubin FD, Funk AJ, Sweatt JD. Lasting epigenetic influence of early-life adversity on the BDNF gene. Biol Psychiatry 2009; 65(9): 760-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.11.028] [PMID: 19150054]
Schroeder M, Hillemacher T, Bleich S, Frieling H. The epigenetic code in depression: implications for treatment. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2012; 91(2): 310-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2011.282] [PMID: 22205200]
Waterland RA, Dolinoy DC, Lin JR, Smith CA, Shi X, Tahiliani KG. Maternal methyl supplements increase offspring DNA methylation at Axin Fused. Genesis 2006; 44(9): 401-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvg.20230] [PMID: 16868943]
Weaver IC, Champagne FA, Brown SE, et al. Reversal of maternal programming of stress responses in adult offspring through methyl supplementation: altering epigenetic marking later in life. J Neurosci 2005; 25(47): 11045-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3652-05.2005] [PMID: 16306417]
Weaver IC, Meaney MJ, Szyf M. Maternal care effects on the hippocampal transcriptome and anxiety-mediated behaviors in the offspring that are reversible in adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103(9): 3480-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0507526103] [PMID: 16484373]
Crews D. Epigenetics, brain, behavior, and the environment. Hormones (Athens) 2010; 9(1): 41-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.14310/horm.2002.1251] [PMID: 20363720]
Meaney MJ. Epigenetics and the biological definition of gene x environment interactions. Child Dev 2010; 81(1): 41-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01381.x] [PMID: 20331654]
Caspi A. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence of maltreated children. Science 2002; 297(5582): 851-4.
Kaminsky Z, Wang S-C, Petronus A. Complex disease, gender and epigenetics. Ann Med 2006; 38(8): 530-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890600989211] [PMID: 17438668]
Petronis A. Human morbid genetics revisited: relevance of epigenetics. Trends Genet 2001; 17(3): 142-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9525(00)02213-7] [PMID: 11226607]
Jablonka E, Lamb M. Epigenetic Inheritance and evolution. New York, NY: Oxford University Press 1995.
Flanagan JM, Popendikyte V, Pozdniakovaite N, et al. Intra- and interindividual epigenetic variation in human germ cells. Am J Hum Genet 2006; 79(1): 67-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/504729] [PMID: 16773567]
Ostrer H. Sex-based differences in gene transmission and gene expression. Lupus 1999; 8(5): 365-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/096120339900800507] [PMID: 10455514]
Oquendo MA, Kamali M, Ellis SP, et al. Adequacy of antidepressant treatment after discharge and the occurrence of suicidal acts in major depression: a prospective study. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159(10): 1746-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.10.1746] [PMID: 12359682]
Call JB, Shafer K. Gendered manifestations of depression and help seeking among men. Am J Men Health 2018; 12(1): 41-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988315623993] [PMID: 26721265]
Simerly RB. Wired on hormones: endocrine regulation of hypothalamic development. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2005; 15(1): 81-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2005.01.013] [PMID: 15721748]
Simerly RB. Wired for reproduction: organization and development of sexually dimorphic circuits in the mammalian forebrain. Annu Rev Neurosci 2002; 25: 507-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.25.112701.142745] [PMID: 12052919]
Lustig RH. Sex hormone modulation of neural development in vitro. Horm Behav 1994; 28(4): 383-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/hbeh.1994.1035] [PMID: 7729807]
Kudwa AE, Michopoulos V, Gatewood JD, Rissman EF. Roles of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in differentiation of mouse sexual behavior. Neuroscience 2006; 138(3): 921-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.10.018] [PMID: 16338079]
Pardue M-L, Wizemann TM, Eds. Exploring the biological contributions to human health, does sex matter?. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press 2001.
Mayes JS, Watson GH. Direct effects of sex steroid hormones on adipose tissues and obesity. Obes Rev 2004; 5(4): 197-216.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2004.00152.x] [PMID: 15458395]
Tan ZS, Seshadri S, Beiser A, et al. Bone mineral density and the risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2005; 62(1): 107-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archneur.62.1.107] [PMID: 15642856]
Hines M, Brook C, Conway GS. Androgen and psychosexual development: core gender identity, sexual orientation and recalled childhood gender role behavior in women and men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). J Sex Res 2004; 41(1): 75-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224490409552215] [PMID: 15216426]
Mill J, Petronis A. Pre- and peri-natal environmental risks for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the potential role of epigenetic processes in mediating susceptibility. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2008; 49(10): 1020-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01909.x] [PMID: 18492038]
Resnick SM, Gottesman II, McGue M. Sensation seeking in opposite-sex twins: an effect of prenatal hormones? Behav Genet 1993; 23(4): 323-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01067432] [PMID: 8240211]
Cohen-Bendahan CC, Buitelaar JK, van Goozen SH, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Prenatal exposure to testosterone and functional cerebral lateralization: a study in same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2004; 29(7): 911-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2003.07.001] [PMID: 15177706]
Baron-Cohen S. Mind-Blindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind. Cambridge, MA: Bradford/MIT Press 1995.
Cohen-Bendahan CC, Buitelaar JK, van Goozen SH, Orlebeke JF, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Is there an effect of prenatal testosterone on aggression and other behavioral traits? A study comparing same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls. Horm Behav 2005; 47(2): 230-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2004.10.006] [PMID: 15664027]
Fried-Cassorla M, Scholl TO, Borow LD, Strassman HD, Bowers EJ. Depression and diethylstilbestrol exposure in women. J Reprod Med 1987; 32(11): 847-50.
[PMID: 3430493]
Pillard RC, Rosen LR, Meyer-Bahlburg H, et al. Psychopathology and social functioning in men prenatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Psychosom Med 1993; 55(6): 485-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-199311000-00003] [PMID: 8310108]
Vessey MP, Fairweather DV, Norman-Smith B, Buckley J. A randomized double-blind controlled trial of the value of stilboestrol therapy in pregnancy: long-term follow-up of mothers and their offspring. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1983; 90(11): 1007-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.1983.tb06438.x] [PMID: 6357269]
Bisagno V, Cadet JL. Stress, sex, and addiction: potential roles of corticotropin-releasing factor, oxytocin, and arginine-vasopressin. Behav Pharmacol 2014; 25(5-6): 445-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FBP.0000000000000049] [PMID: 24949572]
Heinrichs M, von Dawans B, Domes G. Oxytocin, vasopressin, and human social behavior. Front Neuroendocrinol 2009; 30(4): 548-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2009.05.005] [PMID: 19505497]
Seltzer LJ, Ziegler T, Connolly MJ, Prososki AR, Pollak SD. Stress-induced elevation of oxytocin in maltreated children: evolution, neurodevelopment, and social behavior. Child Dev 2014; 85(2): 501-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12136] [PMID: 23865588]
Wray NR, Pergadia ML, Blackwood DH, et al. Genome-wide association study of major depressive disorder: new results, meta-analysis, and lessons learned. Mol Psychiatry 2012; 17(1): 36-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mp.2010.109] [PMID: 21042317]
Haque FN, Gottesman II, Wong AH. Not really identical: epigenetic differences in monozygotic twins and implications for twin studies in psychiatry. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2009; 151C(2): 136-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.c.30206] [PMID: 19378334]
Abkevich V, Camp NJ, Hensel CH, et al. Predisposition locus for major depression at chromosome 12q22-12q23.2. Am J Hum Genet 2003; 73(6): 1271-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/379978] [PMID: 14606042]
Zubenko GS, Maher B, Hughes HB III, et al. Genome-wide linkage survey for genetic loci that influence the development of depressive disorders in families with recurrent, early-onset, major depression. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2003; 123B(1): 1-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.20073] [PMID: 14582139]
Thomson PA, Wray NR, Millar JK, Evans KL, Hellard SL, Condie A. Association between the TRAX/DISC locus and both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in the Scottish population. Mol Psychiatry 2005; 10(616): 657-68.
Hennah W, Varilo T, Kestilä M, et al. Haplotype transmission analysis provides evidence of association for DISC1 to schizophrenia and suggests sex-dependent effects. Hum Mol Genet 2003; 12(23): 3151-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddg341] [PMID: 14532331]
Guintivano J, Sullivan PF, Stuebe AM, et al. Adverse life events, psychiatric history, and biological predictors of postpartum depression in an ethnically diverse sample of postpartum women. Psychol Med 2018; 48(7): 1190-200.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291717002641] [PMID: 28950923]
Turecki G. Early-Life Adversity and Suicide Risk: The Role of Epigenetics. In: Pompili M, Ed. . Phenomenology of Suicide: Unlocking the Suicidal Mind. Geneva, Switzerland: Springer Nature 2017; pp. 39-49.
Uddin M, Chang SC, Zhang C, et al. Adcyap1r1 genotype, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression among women exposed to childhood maltreatment. Depress Anxiety 2013; 30(3): 251-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.22037] [PMID: 23280952]
Ressler KJ, Mercer KB, Bradley B, et al. Post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with PACAP and the PAC1 receptor. Nature 2011; 470(7335): 492-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature09856] [PMID: 21350482]
Cameron NM, Champagne FA, Parent C, Fish EW, Ozaki-Kuroda K, Meaney MJ. The programming of individual differences in defensive responses and reproductive strategies in the rat through variations in maternal care. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2005; 29(4-5): 843-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.03.022] [PMID: 15893378]
Muntaner C, Borrell C, Benach J, Pasarín MI, Fernandez E. The associations of social class and social stratification with patterns of general and mental health in a Spanish population. Int J Epidemiol 2003; 32(6): 950-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyg170] [PMID: 14681254]
Goodman E, Slap G B, Huang B. The public health of socioeconomic status on adolescent depression and obesity Am J Public Health 93 2003; 93: 1844-50.
Costello EJ, Compton SN, Keeler G, Angold A. Relationships between poverty and psychopathology: a natural experiment. JAMA 2003; 290(15): 2023-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.15.2023] [PMID: 14559956]
Adler NE, Boyce WT, Chesney MA, Folkman S, Syme SL. Socioeconomic inequalities in health. No easy solution. JAMA 1993; 269(24): 3140-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03500240084031] [PMID: 8505817]
Fuhrer R, Shipley MJ, Chastang JF, et al. Socioeconomic position, health, and possible explanations: a tale of two cohorts. Am J Public Health 2002; 92(8): 1290-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.8.1290] [PMID: 12144986]
Stansfeld SA, Head J, Fuhrer R, Wardle J, Cattell V. Social inequalities in depressive symptoms and physical functioning in the Whitehall II study: exploring a common cause explanation. J Epidemiol Community Health 2003; 57(5): 361-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.57.5.361] [PMID: 12700221]
Turner RJ, Lloyd DA. The stress process and the social distribution of depression. J Health Soc Behav 1999; 40(4): 374-404.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2676332] [PMID: 10643162]
Power C, Hertzman C. Social and biological pathways linking early life and adult disease. Br Med Bull 1997; 53(1): 210-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a011601] [PMID: 9158295]
Grzywacz JG, Almeida DM, Neupert SD, Ettner SL. Socioeconomic status and health: a micro-level analysis of exposure and vulnerability to daily stressors. J Health Soc Behav 2004; 45(1): 1-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002214650404500101] [PMID: 15179904]
Turner RJ, Avison WR. Status variations in stress exposure: implications for the interpretation of research on race, socioeconomic status, and gender. J Health Soc Behav 2003; 44(4): 488-505.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1519795] [PMID: 15038145]
Seeman TE, Crimmins E, Huang MH, et al. Cumulative biological risk and socio-economic differences in mortality: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Soc Sci Med 2004; 58(10): 1985-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00402-7] [PMID: 15020014]
Lupien SJ, King S, Meaney MJ, McEwen BS. Child’s stress hormone levels correlate with mother’s socioeconomic status and depressive state. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 48(10): 976-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00965-3] [PMID: 11082471]
Eisenberg L, Earls FJ. Poverty, social depreciation and child development. In: Arieti S, Eds. . American Handbook of Psychiatry. Washington, DC: APA Publications 1975; pp. 275-91.
Conger RD, Ge X, Elder GH Jr, Lorenz FO, Simons RL. Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Dev 1994; 65(2): 541-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131401] [PMID: 8013239]
McLoyd VC. Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. Am Psychol 1998; 53(2): 185-204.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.2.185] [PMID: 9491747]
Poulton R, Caspi A, Milne BJ, et al. Association between children’s experience of socioeconomic disadvantage and adult health: a life-course study. Lancet 2002; 360(9346): 1640-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11602-3] [PMID: 12457787]
Gilman SE, Kawachi I, Fitzmaurice GM, Buka SL. Family disruption in childhood and risk of adult depression. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160(5): 939-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.5.939] [PMID: 12727699]
Seckl JR, Meaney MJ. Early life events and later development of ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 1993; 342(8881): 1236.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(93)92215-F] [PMID: 7901549]
Bosma H, van de Mheen HD, Mackenbach JP. Social class in childhood and general health in adulthood: questionnaire study of contribution of psychological attributes. BMJ 1999; 318(7175): 18-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.318.7175.18] [PMID: 9872877]
Meaney MJ. The development of individual differences in behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Annu Rev Neurosci 2001; 24: 1161-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.1161] [PMID: 11520931]
Bouvette-Turcot A-A, Unternaehrer E, Gaudreau H, Lydon JE, Steiner M, Meaney MJ. The joint contribution of maternal history of early adversity and adulthood depression to socioeconomic status and potential relevance for offspring development. J Affect Disord 2017; 207: 26-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.012] [PMID: 27685851]
Campbell SB, Matestic P, von Stauffenberg C, Mohan R, Kirchner T. Trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms, maternal sensitivity, and children’s functioning at school entry. Dev Psychol 2007; 43(5): 1202-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.5.1202] [PMID: 17723045]
Field T. Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: a review. Infant Behav Dev 2010; 33(1): 1-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.005] [PMID: 19962196]
Perry DF, Ettinger AK, Mendelson T, Le HN. Prenatal depression predicts postpartum maternal attachment in low-income Latina mothers with infants. Infant Behav Dev 2011; 34(2): 339-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2011.02.005] [PMID: 21402409]
Narayanan MK, Nærde A. Associations between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and early child behavior problems: Testing a mutually adjusted prospective longitudinal model. J Affect Disord 2016; 196: 181-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.02.020] [PMID: 26922147]
Sirvinskiene G, Zemaitiene N, Jusiene R, Markuniene E. Predictors of emotional and behavioral problems in 1-year-old children: A longitudinal perspective. Infant Ment Health J 2016; 37(4): 401-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21575] [PMID: 27336695]
Babenko O, Kovalchuk I, Metz GA. Stress-induced perinatal and transgenerational epigenetic programming of brain development and mental health. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2015; 48: 70-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.11.013] [PMID: 25464029]
Essex MJ, Klein MH, Cho E, Kalin NH. Maternal stress beginning in infancy may sensitize children to later stress exposure: effects on cortisol and behavior. Biol Psychiatry 2002; 52(8): 776-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01553-6] [PMID: 12372649]
Sapolsky R. Why zebras don’t get ulcers: the acclaimed guide to stress, stress-related diseases, and coping. 3rd ed. New York, NY: St. Martin's Griffin 2004.
Lorenzo-blanco E, Unger JB, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Ritt-Olson A, Soto D. (2012). Acculturation, enculturation, and symptoms of depression in hispanic youth: The roles of gender, hispanic cultural values, and family functioning. J Youth Adolesc 2012; 41(10): 1350-65.http://dx.doi.org.une.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9774-7
Kaplan M. A woman’s view of DSM-III. Am Psychol 1983; 38(7): 786-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.38.7.786] [PMID: 6614624]
Crews D. Epigenetics, brain, behavior, and the environment. Hormones (Athens) 2010; 9(1): 41-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.14310/horm.2002.1251] [PMID: 20363720]
Ptak C, Petronis A. Epigenetics and complex disease: from etiology to new therapeutics. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2008; 48: 257-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.48.113006.094731] [PMID: 17883328]
Yaeger D, Smith HG, Altshuler LL. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia during pregnancy and the postpartum. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163(12): 2064-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.12.2064] [PMID: 17151155]
Kornstein SG, Schatzberg AF, Yonkers KA, et al. Gender differences in presentation of chronic major depression. Psychopharmacol Bull 1995; 31(4): 711-8.
[PMID: 8851644]
Martin LA, Neighbors HW, Griffith DM. The experience of symptoms of depression in men vs women: analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. JAMA Psychiatry 2013; 70(10): 1100-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1985] [PMID: 23986338]
Gerber A, Nguyen KHN, Fischberg S. [Men and depression]. Rev Med Suisse 2016; 12(532): 1614-9.
[PMID: 28686364]
Generique et obsessions ou obsession du generique. A propos d’un cas de rechute d’un trouble obsessionnel compulsif lors d’une substitution de la fluoxetine par un generique. Med Hyg (Geneve) 2012; 1998(2229): 2085-7.
Ogrodniczuk JS, Oliffe JL. Men and depression. Can Fam Physician 2011; 57(2): 153-5.
[PMID: 21321163]
Wide J, Mok H, McKenna M, Ogrodniczuk JS. Effect of gender socialization on the presentation of depression among men: A pilot study. Can Fam Physician 2011 Feb 1; 57(2): e74-8.
Zierau F, Bille A, Rutz W, Bech P. The Gotland Male Depression Scale: a validity study in patients with alcohol use disorder. Nord J Psychiatry 2002; 56(4): 265-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08039480260242750] [PMID: 12470317]
Marsh W, Deligiannidis K. Sex-related differences in antidepressant response: When to adjust treatment, How pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and hormonal factors impact prescribing. Curr Psychiatr 2010; 9: 25-30.
Martin-Du Pan R, Baumann P. Dysfunctions sexuelles induites par les antidepresseurs et les antipsychotiques et leur traitements. Rev Med Suisse 2008; 4: 758-62.
Keers R, Aitchison KJ. Gender differences in antidepressant drug response. Int Rev Psychiatry 2010; 22(5): 485-500.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2010.496448] [PMID: 21047161]
Persico AM, Bourgeron T. Searching for ways out of the autism maze: genetic, epigenetic and environmental clues. Trends Neurosci 2006; 29(7): 349-58.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2006.05.010] [PMID: 16808981]
Tsankova N, Renthal W, Kumar A, Nestler EJ. 2007 Epigenetic regulation in psychiatric disorders. Nat Rev Neurosci 8: 355-367. Nat Rev Neurosci 2007; 8: 355-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn2132] [PMID: 17453016]
Montalvo-Ortiz J, Kranzler H, Zhao H, Zhang H, Gelernter J. Genome-Wide Epigenetic Signatures of Major Depressive Disorder in Women. Biol Psychiatry 2018; 83(9)(Suppl.): S285.
Chen D, Meng L, Pei F, Zheng Y, Leng J. A review of DNA methylation in depression. J Clin Neurosci 2017; 43: 39-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2017.05.022] [PMID: 28645747]
Nemoda Z, Szyf M. Epigenetic alterations and prenatal maternal depression. Birth Defects Res 2017; 109(12): 888-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1081] [PMID: 28714605]
King L, et al. Perinatal depression and DNA methylation of oxytocin-related genes: a study of mothers and their children. Horm Behav 2017; 96: 84-94.
Checknita D, Ekström TJ, Comasco E, Nilsson KW, Tiihonen J, Hodgins S. Associations of monoamine oxidase A gene first exon methylation with sexual abuse and current depression in women. J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2018; 125(7): 1053-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-018-1875-3] [PMID: 29600412]
Champagne FA. Epigenetic mechanisms and the transgenerational effects of maternal care. Front Neuroendocrinol 2008; 29(3): 386-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2008.03.003] [PMID: 18462782]
Weaver ICG, Cervoni N, Champagne FA, et al. Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior. Nat Neurosci 2004; 7(8): 847-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn1276] [PMID: 15220929]
Charmaz K. “Grounded theory: objectivist and constructivist methods,” in Handbook of qualitative research. London: Sage 2000; pp. 509-36.
Charmaz K. Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications 2006.
Glaser B, Strauss A. The discovery of grounded theory 1967. London: Weidenfield & Nicolson 1967.
Glaser BG. Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociological Press 1978.
Strauss AL. Qualitative analysis for social scientists. Cambridge University Press 1987.
Strauss A, Corbin J. Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage 1990.
Behler J, Scott J, Mehl-Madrona L. Qualitative Exploration of Peer-Group and Peer-Counseling for People with Affective Disorders the Qualitative Report 2015 in press

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [277 - 289]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/2666082215666191029141418

Article Metrics

PDF: 14
PRC: 1