Background: The timely identification of traditional and non-traditional precursors and risk factors for
chronic kidney disease (CKD) (a common systemic disease defined as a decreased kidney function documented
by reduced glomerular filtration rate, or markers of kidney damage, or both) is relevant in clinical practice, as
CKD increases the risk of end-stage renal disease and other serious comorbidities. A possible relationship between
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (which is to date the most common chronic disease worldwide)
and CKD has recently gained significant attention of researchers.
Methods: A systematic literature search using appropriate keywords was made in order to identify relevant articles
that have investigated the association between NAFLD and CKD.
Results: Several observational studies and meta-analyses have reported the existence of an independent association
between NAFLD and risk of CKD in patients with and without diabetes. However, whilst the association
between NAFLD and risk of prevalent CKD is strong across various patient populations, whether NAFLD is
independently associated with the development and progression of CKD is still debatable. Moreover, emerging
evidence now suggests a potential association between patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein-3
(PNPLA3) rs738409 genotype (the most important genetic variant associated to NAFLD) and decreasing kidney
function, independent of NAFLD.
Conclusion: Convincing evidence now indicates that CKD is increased among patients with NAFLD. For this
reason, patients with NAFLD should be regularly monitored for renal function and, on the other hand , NAFLD
should be considered in all patients with CKD, especially if they are obese or have type 2 diabetes.