In spite of the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are required
due to concerns about the low immunogenicity of the toxicity, instability, and the need for
multiple administrations of the vaccines. To overcome the mentioned problems, nanotechnology
has recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanotechnology increasingly
plays an important role in vaccine development nanocarrier-based delivery systems
that offer an opportunity to increase the cellular and humoral immune responses. The use
of nanoparticles in vaccine formulations allows not only enhanced immunogenicity and
stability of antigen, but also targeted delivery and slow release. Over the past decade, nanoscale
size materials such as virus-like particles, liposomes, ISCOMs, polymeric, inorganic
nanoparticles and emulsions have gained attention as potential delivery vehicles for
vaccine antigens, which can both stabilize vaccine antigens and act as adjuvants. This advantage
is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by Antigen-
Presenting Cells (APCs), then leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation.
Modifying the surfaces of nanoparticles with different targeting moieties permits the delivery
of antigens to specific receptors on the cell surface, thereby stimulating selective and
specific immune responses. This review provides an overview of recent advances in nanovaccinology.