Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have rapidly developed into biomedical research as a
novel tool for the potential treatment of various human diseases. They are based on altered gene expression.
In spite of the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there is a specific
interest in developing siRNAs as a therapeutic agent for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to
several problems including toxicity and drug resistance along with long term treatment. The successful
use of siRNAs for therapeutic goals needs safe and effective delivery to specific cells and tissues. Indeed,
the efficiency of gene silencing depends on the potency of the carrier used for siRNA delivery.
The combination of siRNA and nano-carriers is a potent method to prevent the limitations of siRNA
formulation. Three steps were involved in non-viral siRNA carriers such as the complex formation of
siRNA with a cationic carrier, conjugation of siRNA with small molecules, and encapsulation of siRNA
In this mini-review, the designed siRNAs and their carriers are described against HIV-1 infections both
in vitro and in vivo.
Keywords: HIV infection, siRNA, delivery system, in vitro and in vivo studies, cancer, RNAs.
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