Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the association of physical fitness with longterm
Blood Pressure Variability (BPV) in young male adults.
Methods: 1,112 healthy military males, aged 18-40 years (mean age, 32 years), in Taiwan were
included for the current analysis. Resting blood pressures were measured over the right upper arm
in a sitting position every two years from 2012 to 2018 (2012-14, 2014-15, 2015-16, 2016-18).
Long-term BPV by Standard Deviation (SDSBP and SDDBP) and Average Real Variability (ARVSBP
and ARVDBP) were assessed across 4 visits during the study period. Aerobic fitness was evaluated
by the time taken for a 3000-meter run test, and anaerobic fitness was evaluated by the number of
2-minute sit-ups and 2-minute push-ups.
Results: After adjusting the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the time for a 3000-meter run was
associated with ARVSBP, SDSBP, and SDDBP (β [SE]: 0.007 [0.002], 0.004 [0.002], and 0.005
[0.002], respectively, all p <0.05) but not with ARVDBP. In addition, the number of 2-minute sit-ups
was inversely associated with ARVSBP (β [SE]: -0.041 [0.017], p =0.01) but not with ARVDBP,
SDSBP, and SDDBP. There was no association of the number of 2-minute push-ups with the BPV
indexes. After additionally adjusting the age, body mass index, and other covariates, all the associations
were found to be not significant.
Conclusion: It was found that there was no association of physical fitness with long-term BPV in
young male military personnel. Previous studies have shown no association with cardiorespiratory
fitness in the elderly. This study further increased the knowledge of a null association between anaerobic
fitness and long-term BPV.