Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid in Therapeutics: Beneficial to Toxicity Profiles and the Search for its Analogs

Author(s): Geraldine Sandana Mala John, Satoru Takeuchi, Ganesh Venkatraman*, Suresh Kumar Rayala*.

Journal Name: Current Cancer Drug Targets

Volume 20 , Issue 2 , 2020

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Abstract:

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a plant lignan obtained from creosote bush, Larrea tridentata and is known to possess antioxidant, anticancer activities and is used in traditional medicine in North America and Mexico. However, its prolonged consumption leads to liver damage and kidney dysfunction. Despite its toxicity and side effects, there is little awareness to forbid its consumption and its use in the treatment of medical ailments has continued over the years. Several reports discuss its therapeutic efficiency and its medical applications have tremendously been on the rise to date. There has been a recent surge of interest in the chemical synthesis of NDGA derivatives for therapeutic applications. NDGA derivatives have been developed as better alternatives to NDGA. Although several NDGA derivatives have been chemically synthesized as evidenced by recent literature, there is a paucity of information on their therapeutic efficacies. This review is to highlight the medicinal applications of NDGA, its toxicity evaluations and discuss the chemical derivatives of NDGA synthesized and studied so far and suggest to continue research interests in the development of NDGA analogs for therapeutic applications. We suggest that NDGA derivatives should be investigated more in terms of chemical synthesis with preferred conformational structures and exploit their biological potentials with future insights to explore in this direction to design and develop structurally modified NDGA derivatives for potential pharmacological properties.

Keywords: Anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, antiviral activity, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, synthetic analogs, toxicity.

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