Recent Advances in the Hofmann Rearrangement and Its Application to Natural Product Synthesis

Author(s): Pradip Debnath*

Journal Name: Current Organic Chemistry

Volume 23 , Issue 22 , 2019

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Abstract:

C-N bond formation reactions are the most important transformations in (bio)organic chemistry because of the widespread occurrence of amines in pharmaceuticals, natural products, and biologically active compounds. The Hofmann rearrangement is a well-known method used for the preparation of primary amines from amides. But, the traditional version of the Hofmann rearrangement often gave relatively poor yields due to over-oxidation or due to the poor solubility of some amides in aqueous base, and created an enormous amount of waste products. Developments over the last two decades, in particular, have focused on refining both of these factors affecting the reaction. This review covers both the description of recent advances (2000-2019) in the Hofmann rearrangements and its applications in the synthesis of heterocycles, natural products and complex molecules of biological interest. It is revealed that organo-catalytic systems especially hypervalent iodine-based catalysts have been developed for the green and environmentally friendly conversion of carboxamides to primary amines and carbamates.

Keywords: Amides, Hofmann rearrangement, hypervalent iodine, primary amines, carbamates, heterocycles, natural products.

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VOLUME: 23
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Year: 2019
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