Glioma is the most common type of tumor in the central nervous system (CNS). Diagnosis
is through history, physical examination, radiology, histology and molecular profiles. Magnetic
resonance imaging is a standard workup for all CNS tumors. Multidisciplinary team management
is strongly recommended. The management of low-grade gliomas is still controversial
with regards to early surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or watchful waiting watchful waiting.
Patients with suspected high-grade gliomas should undergo an assessment by neurosurgeons for
the consideration of maximum safe resection to achieve optimal tumor debulking, and to provide
adequate tissue for histologic and molecular diagnosis. Post-operative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy
are given depending on disease grade and patient performance. Glioblastoma are mostly
considered incurable. Treatment approaches in the elderly, pediatric population and recurrent
gliomas are discussed with the latest updates in the literature. Treatment considerations include
performance status, neurocognitive functioning, and co-morbidities. Important genetic mutations,
clinical trials and guidelines are summarized in this review.
Keywords: Glioma, central nervous system, tumor, magnetic resonance imaging, radiotherapy, glioblastoma.
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