Modern Treatments for Gliomas Improve Outcome

Author(s): Joshua Giambattista*, Egiroh Omene, Osama Souied, Fred H.C. Hsu

Journal Name: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews

Volume 16 , Issue 3 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Glioma is the most common type of tumor in the central nervous system (CNS). Diagnosis is through history, physical examination, radiology, histology and molecular profiles. Magnetic resonance imaging is a standard workup for all CNS tumors. Multidisciplinary team management is strongly recommended. The management of low-grade gliomas is still controversial with regards to early surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or watchful waiting watchful waiting. Patients with suspected high-grade gliomas should undergo an assessment by neurosurgeons for the consideration of maximum safe resection to achieve optimal tumor debulking, and to provide adequate tissue for histologic and molecular diagnosis. Post-operative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy are given depending on disease grade and patient performance. Glioblastoma are mostly considered incurable. Treatment approaches in the elderly, pediatric population and recurrent gliomas are discussed with the latest updates in the literature. Treatment considerations include performance status, neurocognitive functioning, and co-morbidities. Important genetic mutations, clinical trials and guidelines are summarized in this review.

Keywords: Glioma, central nervous system, tumor, magnetic resonance imaging, radiotherapy, glioblastoma.

[1]
Goodenberger ML, Jenkins RB. Genetics of adult glioma. Cancer Genet 2012; 205(12): 613-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2012.10.009] [PMID: 23238284]
[2]
Omuro A, DeAngelis LM. Glioblastoma and other malignant gliomas: a clinical review. JAMA 2013; 310(17): 1842-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.280319] [PMID: 24193082]
[3]
Soffietti R, Baumert BG, Bello L, et al. Guidelines on management of low-grade gliomas: Report of an EFNS-EANO Task Force. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17(9): 1124-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03151.x] [PMID: 20718851]
[4]
Delfanti RL, Piccioni DE, Handwerker J, et al. Imaging correlates for the 2016 update on WHO classification of grade II/III gliomas: Implications for IDH, 1p/19q and ATRX status. J Neurooncol 2017; 135(3): 601-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-017-2613-7] [PMID: 28871469]
[5]
Branzoli F, Di Stefano AL, Capelle L, et al. Highly specific determination of IDH status using edited in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neuro-oncol 2018; 20(7): 907-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nox214] [PMID: 29126125]
[6]
Shofty B, Artzi M, Ben Bashat D, et al. MRI radiomics analysis of molecular alterations in low-grade gliomas. Int J CARS 2018; 13(4): 563-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11548-017-1691-5] [PMID: 29270916]
[7]
Kernohan JW, Mabon RF, Svien HJ, Adson AW. A simplified classification of the gliomas. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin 1949; 24(3): 71-5.
[PMID: 18111063]
[8]
Daumas-Duport C, Scheithauer B, O’Fallon J, Kelly P. Grading of astrocytomas. A simple and reproducible method. Cancer 1988; 62(10): 2152-65.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19881115)62:10<2152::AID-CNCR2820621015>3.0.CO;2-T] [PMID: 3179928]
[9]
Shaw EG, Scheithauer BW, O’Fallon JR, Tazelaar HD, Davis DH. Oligodendrogliomas: The Mayo Clinic experience. J Neurosurg 1992; 76(3): 428-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.1992.76.3.0428] [PMID: 1738022]
[10]
Gunderson LL, Tepper JE, Calvo FA, Callister MD. Clinical Radiation Oncology. Elsevier: New York, 2012; pp. 903-33.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4377-1637-5.00045-6]
[11]
Talibi SS, Talibi SS, Aweid B, Aweid O. Prospective therapies for high-grade glial tumours: A literature review. Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2014; 3(3): 55-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2014.04.003] [PMID: 25568787]
[12]
Louis DN, Perry A, Burger P, et al. International Society Of Neuropathology--Haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading. Brain Pathol 2014; 24(5): 429-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12171] [PMID: 24990071]
[13]
Louis DN, Perry A, Reifenberger G, et al. The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary. Acta Neuropathol 2016; 131(6): 803-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-016-1545-1] [PMID: 27157931]
[14]
Iuchi T, Sugiyama T, Ohira M, et al. Clinical significance of the 2016 WHO classification in Japanese patients with gliomas. Brain Tumor Pathol 2018; 35(2): 71-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10014-018-0309-0] [PMID: 29470683]
[15]
Gupta A, Dwivedi T. A simplified overview of world health organization classification update of central nervous system tumors 2016. J Neurosci Rural Pract 2017; 8(4): 629-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jnrp.jnrp_168_17] [PMID: 29204027]
[16]
Hewer E, Prebil N, Berezowska S, et al. Diagnostic implications of TERT promoter mutation status in diffuse gliomas in a routine clinical setting. Virchows Arch 2017; 471(5): 641-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-017-2216-x] [PMID: 28823044]
[17]
Dixit K, Raizer J. Newer strategies for the management of low-grade gliomas. Oncology (Williston Park) 2017; 31(9): 680-682, 684-685.
[PMID: 29071695]
[19]
Louis DN, von Deimling A, Cavenee WK. Diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumoursWHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. 4th ed. International Agency for Research Centre: Lyon, 2016; pp. 15-56.
[20]
Håvik AB, Brandal P, Honne H, et al. MGMT promoter methylation in gliomas-assessment by pyrosequencing and quantitative methylation-specific PCR. J Transl Med 2012; 10: 36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-10-36] [PMID: 22390413]
[21]
Gao K, Li G, Qu Y, et al. TERT promoter mutations and long telomere length predict poor survival and radiotherapy resistance in gliomas. Oncotarget 2016; 7(8): 8712-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6007] [PMID: 26556853]
[22]
Wiestler B, Capper D, Holland-Letz T, et al. ATRX loss refines the classification of anaplastic gliomas and identifies a subgroup of IDH mutant astrocytic tumors with better prognosis. Acta Neuropathol 2013; 126(3): 443-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-013-1156-z] [PMID: 23904111]
[23]
Baumert BG, Hegi ME, van den Bent MJ, et al. Temozolomide chemotherapy vs. radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033): A randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study. Lancet Oncol 2016; 17(11): 1521-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30313-8] [PMID: 27686946]
[24]
Chang EF, Potts MB, Keles GE, et al. Seizure characteristics and control following resection in 332 patients with low-grade gliomas. J Neurosurg 2008; 108(2): 227-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/JNS/2008/108/2/0227] [PMID: 18240916]
[25]
Nabors LB. Central Nervous System: Notable Developments in the Management of Primary and Recurrent Gliomas. J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2016; 14(5)(Suppl.): 681-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2016.0192] [PMID: 27226514]
[26]
Pallud J, Audureau E, Blonski M, et al. Epileptic seizures in diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults. Brain 2014; 137(Pt 2): 449-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awt345] [PMID: 24374407]
[27]
McGirt MJ, Villavicencio AT, Bulsara KR, Friedman AH. MRI-guided stereotactic biopsy in the diagnosis of glioma: Comparison of biopsy and surgical resection specimen. Surg Neurol 2003; 59(4): 277-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-3019(03)00048-X] [PMID: 12748009]
[28]
Jenkins RB, Blair H, Ballman KV, et al. A t(1;19)(q10;p10) mediates the combined deletions of 1p and 19q and predicts a better prognosis of patients with oligodendroglioma. Cancer Res 2006; 66(20): 9852-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-1796] [PMID: 17047046]
[29]
Olar A, Sulman EP. Molecular markers in low-grade glioma Toward Tumor Reclassification. Semin Radiat Oncol 2015; 25(3): 155-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semradonc.2015.02.006] [PMID: 26050585]
[30]
Brat DJ, Verhaak RG, Aldape KD, et al. Comprehensive, integrative genomic analysis of diffuse lower-grade gliomas. N Engl J Med 2015; 372(26): 2481-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1402121] [PMID: 26061751]
[31]
Shaw EG, Berkey B, Coons SW, et al. Recurrence following neurosurgeon-determined gross-total resection of adult supratentorial low-grade glioma: Results of a prospective clinical trial. J Neurosurg 2008; 109(5): 835-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/JNS/2008/109/11/0835] [PMID: 18976072]
[32]
Gorlia T, Delattre J-Y, Brandes AA, et al. New clinical, pathological and molecular prognostic models and calculators in patients with locally diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma. A prognostic factor analysis of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Brain Tumour Group Study 26951. Eur J Cancer 2013; 49(16): 3477-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2013.06.039] [PMID: 23896377]
[33]
Jansen NL, Suchorska B, Wenter V, et al. Dynamic 18F-FET PET in newly diagnosed astrocytic low-grade glioma identifies high-risk patients. J Nucl Med 2014; 55(2): 198-203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.113.122333] [PMID: 24379223]
[34]
Abdulrauf SI, Edvardsen K, Ho KL, Yang XY, Rock JP, Rosenblum ML. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression and vascular density as prognostic markers of survival in patients with low-grade astrocytoma. J Neurosurg 1998; 88(3): 513-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.1998.88.3.0513] [PMID: 9488306]
[35]
Jakola AS, Myrmel KS, Kloster R, et al. Comparison of a strategy favoring early surgical resection vs. a strategy favoring watchful waiting in low-grade gliomas. JAMA 2012; 308(18): 1881-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.12807] [PMID: 23099483]
[36]
Jakola AS, Skjulsvik AJ, Myrmel KS, et al. Surgical resection vs. watchful waiting in low-grade gliomas. Ann Oncol 2017; 28(8): 1942-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdx230] [PMID: 28475680]
[37]
Sarmiento JM, Venteicher AS, Patil CG. Early vs. delayed postoperative radiotherapy for treatment of low-grade gliomas. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; (6): ; CD009229
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009229.pub2] [PMID: 26118544]
[38]
van den Bent MJ, Afra D, de Witte O, et al. Long-term efficacy of early vs. delayed radiotherapy for low-grade astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults: The EORTC 22845 randomised trial. Lancet 2005; 366(9490): 985-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67070-5] [PMID: 16168780]
[39]
Ryken TC, Parney I, Buatti J, Kalkanis SN, Olson JJ. The role of radiotherapy in the management of patients with diffuse low grade glioma: A systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice guideline. J Neurooncol 2015; 125(3): 551-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-015-1948-1] [PMID: 26530266]
[40]
Karim ABMF, Afra D, Cornu P, et al. Randomized trial on the efficacy of radiotherapy for cerebral low-grade glioma in the adult: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Study 22845 with the Medical Research Council study BRO4: an interim analysis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002; 52(2): 316-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-3016(01)02692-X] [PMID: 11872276]
[41]
Ryken TC, Parney I, Buatti J, Kalkanis SN, Olson JJ. The role of radiotherapy in the management of patients with diffuse low grade glioma: A systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice guideline. J Neurooncol 2015; 125(3): 551-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-015-1948-1] [PMID: 26530266]
[42]
Murphy ES, Leyrer CM, Parsons M, et al. Risk factors for malignant transformation of low-grade glioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018; 100(4): 965-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.12.258] [PMID: 29485076]
[43]
Rees J, Watt H, Jäger HR, et al. Volumes and growth rates of untreated adult low-grade gliomas indicate risk of early malignant transformation. Eur J Radiol 2009; 72(1): 54-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.06.013] [PMID: 18632238]
[44]
Roberge D, Souhami L. Stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy in the management of high-grade gliomasPrinciples and practice of stereotactic radiosurgery. Springer: New York, 2015; pp. 249-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8363-2_17]
[45]
Shaw E, Arusell R, Scheithauer B, et al. Prospective randomized trial of low- vs. high-dose radiation therapy in adults with supratentorial low-grade glioma: Initial report of a North Central Cancer Treatment Group/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20(9): 2267-76.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2002.09.126] [PMID: 11980997]
[46]
Karim AB, Maat B, Hatlevoll R, et al. A randomized trial on dose-response in radiation therapy of low-grade cerebral glioma: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Study 22844. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996; 36(3): 549-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-3016(96)00352-5] [PMID: 8948338]
[47]
Laack NN, Brown PD, Ivnik RJ, et al. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005; 63(4): 1175-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.04.016] [PMID: 15964709]
[48]
Davidson MTM, Masucci GL, Follwell M, et al. Single arc volumetric modulated arc therapy for complex brain gliomas: Is there an advantage as compared to intensity modulated radiotherapy or by adding a partial arc? Technol Cancer Res Treat 2012; 11(3): 211-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7785/tcrt.2012.500289] [PMID: 22376134]
[49]
EORTC. Available from: www.eortc.org/contact
[50]
Baumert BG, Hegi ME, van den Bent MJ, et al. Temozolomide chemotherapy vs. radiotherapy in high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033): A randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study. Lancet Oncol 2016; 17(11): 1521-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30313-8] [PMID: 27686946]
[51]
Reijneveld JC, Taphoorn MJB, Coens C, et al. Health-related quality of life in patients with high-risk low-grade glioma (EORTC 22033-26033): A randomised, open-label, phase 3 intergroup study. Lancet Oncol 2016; 17(11): 1533-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30305-9] [PMID: 27686943]
[52]
Lecavalier-Barsoum M, Quon H, Abdulkarim B. Adjuvant treatment of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Cochrane Database Syst Rev John Wiley & Sons Ltd.; Chichester, UK,. 2014 (5): CD007104.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007104.pub2]
[53]
Shaw EG, Wang M, Coons SW, et al. Randomized trial of radiation therapy plus procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy for supratentorial adult low-grade glioma: Initial results of RTOG 9802. J Clin Oncol 2012; 30(25): 3065-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.35.8598] [PMID: 22851558]
[54]
van den Bent MJ. Practice changing mature results of RTOG study 9802: another positive PCV trial makes adjuvant chemotherapy part of standard of care in low-grade glioma. Neuro-oncol 2014; 16(12): 1570-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nou297] [PMID: 25355680]
[55]
Fisher BJ, Hu C, Macdonald DR, et al. Phase 2 study of temozolomide-based chemoradiation therapy for high-risk low-grade gliomas: Preliminary results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0424. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015; 91(3): 497-504.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.11.012] [PMID: 25680596]
[56]
Pace A, Vidiri A, Galiè E, et al. Temozolomide chemotherapy for progressive low-grade glioma: clinical benefits and radiological response. Ann Oncol 2003; 14(12): 1722-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdg502] [PMID: 14630675]
[58]
Narita Y. Chemotherapy of Diffuse Astrocytoma (WHO grade II) in Adults. Prog Neurol Surg 2018; 31: 145-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000467375] [PMID: 29393182]
[59]
Kim JT, Kim JS, Ko KW, et al. Metronomic treatment of temozolomide inhibits tumor cell growth through reduction of angiogenesis and augmentation of apoptosis in orthotopic models of gliomas. Oncol Rep 2006; 16(1): 33-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.16.1.33] [PMID: 16786120]
[60]
Houy N, Le Grand F. Administration of temozolomide: Comparison of conventional and metronomic chemotherapy regimens. J Theor Biol 2018; 446: 71-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2018.02.034] [PMID: 29526662]
[61]
Lashkari HP, Saso S, Moreno L, Athanasiou T, Zacharoulis S. Using different schedules of Temozolomide to treat low grade gliomas: systematic review of their efficacy and toxicity. J Neurooncol 2011; 105(2): 135-47.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-011-0657-7] [PMID: 21748491]
[62]
Combs SE, Thilmann C, Edler L, Debus J, Schulz-Ertner D. Efficacy of fractionated stereotactic reirradiation in recurrent gliomas: long-term results in 172 patients treated in a single institution. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23(34): 8863-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.03.4157] [PMID: 16314646]
[63]
Wick W, Platten M, Meisner C, et al. Temozolomide chemotherapy alone vs. radiotherapy alone for malignant astrocytoma in the elderly: The NOA-08 randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13(7): 707-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70164-X] [PMID: 22578793]
[64]
Khan MN, Sharma AM, Pitz M, et al. High-grade glioma management and response assessment-recent advances and current challenges. Curr Oncol 2016; 23(4): e383-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/co.23.3082] [PMID: 27536188]
[65]
Khasraw M, Lee A, McCowatt S, et al. Cilengitide with metronomic temozolomide, procarbazine, and standard radiotherapy in patients with glioblastoma and unmethylated MGMT gene promoter in ExCentric, an open-label phase II trial. J Neurooncol 2016; 128(1): 163-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-016-2094-0] [PMID: 26935578]
[66]
Hegi ME, Diserens A-C, Gorlia T, et al. MGMT gene silencing and benefit from temozolomide in glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(10): 997-1003.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa043331] [PMID: 15758010]
[67]
Tsitlakidis A, Foroglou N, Venetis CA, Patsalas I, Hatzisotiriou A, Selviaridis P. Biopsy vs. resection in the management of malignant gliomas: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurosurg 2010; 112(5): 1020-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2009.7.JNS09758] [PMID: 19747048]
[68]
Chaichana KL, Jusue-Torres I, Navarro-Ramirez R, et al. Establishing percent resection and residual volume thresholds affecting survival and recurrence for patients with newly diagnosed intracranial glioblastoma. Neuro-oncol 2014; 16(1): 113-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/not137] [PMID: 24285550]
[69]
Parlato C, Barbarisi M, Moraci M, Moraci A. Surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide in treating high-grade gliomas. Front Biosci 2006; 11(1): 1280-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2741/1881] [PMID: 16368514]
[70]
Quinones-Hinojosa A, Raza SM, Eds. The role of surgery in the management of high-grade gliomas (newly diagnosed, recurrent, and multifocal high-grade gliomas). In: Controversies in Neuro- Oncology Ed Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag; . 2014.(Best Evidence Medicine for Brain Tumor Surgery). .
[71]
Malmström A, Poulsen HS, Grønberg BH, et al. Postoperative neoadjuvant temozolomide before radiotherapy vs. standard radiotherapy in patients 60 years or younger with anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma: A randomized trial. Acta Oncol 2017; 56(12): 1776-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2017.1332780] [PMID: 28675067]
[72]
Li J, Wang M, Won M, et al. Validation and simplification of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis classification for glioblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011; 81(3): 623-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.06.012] [PMID: 20888136]
[73]
Paravati AJ, Heron DE, Landsittel D, et al. Radiotherapy and TMZ for newly diagnosed glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma: validation of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-Recursive Partitioning Analysis in the IMRT and TMZ era. J Neurooncol 2011; 104(1): 339-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-010-0499-8] [PMID: 21181233]
[74]
Wen PY, Macdonald DR, Reardon DA, et al. Updated response assessment criteria for high-grade gliomas: Response assessment in neuro-oncology working group. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28(11): 1963-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.26.3541] [PMID: 20231676]
[75]
Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402, Cairncross G, Berkey B, et al. Phase III trial of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone for pure and mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma: Intergroup Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402. . J Clin Oncol 2006; 24(18): 2707-14.
[76]
Cairncross G, Wang M, Shaw E, et al. Phase III trial of chemoradiotherapy for anaplastic oligodendroglioma: Long-term results of RTOG 9402. J Clin Oncol 2013; 31(3): 337-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.43.2674] [PMID: 23071247]
[77]
Kouwenhoven MCM, Gorlia T, Kros JM, et al. Molecular analysis of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors in a prospective randomized study: A report from EORTC study 26951. Neuro-oncol 2009; 11(6): 737-46.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/15228517-2009-011] [PMID: 19224764]
[78]
Cairncross JG, Wang M, Jenkins RB, et al. Benefit from procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine in oligodendroglial tumors is associated with mutation of IDH. J Clin Oncol 2014; 32(8): 783-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2013.49.3726] [PMID: 24516018]
[79]
van den Bent MJ, Carpentier AF, Brandes AA, et al. Adjuvant PCV improves progression free survival but not overall survival in newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas: A randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 2715-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.04.6078] [PMID: 16782911]
[80]
van den Bent MJ, Brandes AA, Taphoorn MJ, et al. Adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine chemotherapy in newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendroglioma: Long-term follow-up of EORTC brain tumor group study 26951. J Clin Oncol 2013; 31(3): 344-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.43.2229] [PMID: 23071237]
[81]
van den Bent MJ, Baumert B, Erridge SC, et al. Interim results from the CATNON trial (EORTC study 26053-22054) of treatment with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide for 1p/19q non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma: A phase 3, randomised, open-label intergroup study. Lancet 2017; 390(10103): 1645-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31442-3] [PMID: 28801186]
[83]
Izquierdo C, Joubert B, Ducray F. Anaplastic gliomas in adults: an update. Curr Opin Oncol 2017; 29(6): 434-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCO.0000000000000409] [PMID: 28901965]
[85]
Wick W, Hartmann C, Engel C, et al. NOA-04 randomized phase III trial of sequential radiochemotherapy of anaplastic glioma with procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine or temozolomide. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27(35): 5874-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.23.6497] [PMID: 19901110]
[86]
Wick W, Roth P, Hartmann C, et al. Long-term analysis of the NOA-04 randomized phase III trial of sequential radiochemotherapy of anaplastic glioma with PCV or temozolomide. Neuro-oncol 2016; 18(11): 1529-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/now133] [PMID: 27370396]
[87]
Delgado-López PD, Corrales-García EM. Survival in glioblastoma: A review on the impact of treatment modalities. Clin Transl Oncol 2016; 18(11): 1062-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12094-016-1497-x] [PMID: 26960561]
[88]
Curran WJ Jr, Scott CB, Horton J, et al. Recursive partitioning analysis of prognostic factors in three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group malignant glioma trials. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85(9): 704-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/85.9.704] [PMID: 8478956]
[89]
Lacroix M, Abi-Said D, Fourney DR, et al. A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: Prognosis, extent of resection, and survival. J Neurosurg 2001; 95(2): 190-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.2001.95.2.0190] [PMID: 11780887]
[90]
Laws ER, Parney IF, Huang W, et al. Survival following surgery and prognostic factors for recently diagnosed malignant glioma: data from the Glioma Outcomes Project. J Neurosurg 2009; 99(3): 1-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/103171/jns20039930467.]
[91]
Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, et al. National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant TMZ for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 2005; 352(10): 987-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa043330] [PMID: 15758009]
[92]
Stupp R, Hegi ME, Mason WP, et al. National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ vs. radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial. Lancet Oncol 2009; 10(5): 459-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70025-7] [PMID: 19269895]
[93]
Cabrera AR, Kirkpatrick JP, Fiveash JB, et al. Radiation therapy for glioblastoma: Executive summary of an American Society for Radiation Oncology Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline. Pract Radiat Oncol 2016; 6(4): 217-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2016.03.007] [PMID: 27211230]
[94]
Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ. Radiotherapy plus Concomitant and Adjuvant TMZ for Glioblastoma. Oncology Times 2005; 27(9): 15-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.COT.0000289242.47980.f9]
[95]
Gállego Pérez-Larraya J, Delattre J-Y. Management of elderly patients with gliomas. Oncologist 2014; 19(12): 1258-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2014-0170] [PMID: 25342314]
[96]
Kreth F-W, Thon N, Simon M, et al. Gross total but not incomplete resection of glioblastoma prolongs survival in the era of radiochemotherapy. Ann Oncol 2013; 24(12): 3117-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdt388] [PMID: 24130262]
[97]
Szczepanek D, Marchel A, Moskała M, Krupa M, Kunert P, Trojanowski T. Efficacy of concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide in glioblastoma treatment. A multicentre randomized study. Neurol Neurochir Pol 2013; 47(2): 101-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ninp.2013.34398] [PMID: 23649997]
[98]
Athanassiou H, Synodinou M, Maragoudakis E, et al. Randomized phase II study of temozolomide and radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23(10): 2372-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.00.331] [PMID: 15800329]
[99]
Walker MD, Strike TA, Sheline GE. An analysis of dose-effect relationship in the radiotherapy of malignant gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1979; 5(10): 1725-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(79)90553-4] [PMID: 231022]
[100]
Veliz I, Loo Y, Castillo O, Karachaliou N, Nigro O, Rosell R. Advances and challenges in the molecular biology and treatment of glioblastoma-is there any hope for the future? Ann Transl Med 2015; 3(1): 7.
[PMID: 25705639]
[101]
Adamson C, Kanu OO, Mehta AI, et al. Glioblastoma multiforme: A review of where we have been and where we are going. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2009; 18(8): 1061-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/13543780903052764] [PMID: 19555299]
[102]
Gzell C, Back M, Wheeler H, Bailey D, Foote M. Radiotherapy in Glioblastoma: the Past, the Present and the Future. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2017; 29(1): 15-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2016.09.015] [PMID: 27743773]
[103]
Chang CH, Horton J, Schoenfeld D, et al. Comparison of postoperative radiotherapy and combined postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the multidisciplinary management of malignant gliomas. A joint Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study. Cancer 1983; 52(6): 997-1007.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19830915)52:6<997::AID-CNCR2820520612>3.0.CO;2-2] [PMID: 6349785]
[104]
Baumert BG, Lutterbach J, Bernays R, Davis JB, Heppner FL. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy boost after post-operative radiotherapy in patients with high-grade gliomas. Radiother Oncol 2003; 67(2): 183-90.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8140(02)00386-9] [PMID: 12812849]
[105]
Lawrence YR, Li XA, el Naqa I, et al. Radiation dose-volume effects in the brain. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010; 76(3)(Suppl.): S20-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.02.091] [PMID: 20171513]
[106]
Wallner KE, Galicich JH, Krol G, Arbit E, Malkin MG. Patterns of failure following treatment for glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1989; 16(6): 1405-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(89)90941-3] [PMID: 2542195]
[107]
Gaspar LE, Fisher BJ, Macdonald DR, et al. Supratentorial malignant glioma: patterns of recurrence and implications for external beam local treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1992; 24(1): 55-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0360-3016(92)91021-E] [PMID: 1512163]
[108]
Chang EL, Akyurek S, Avalos T, et al. Evaluation of peritumoral edema in the delineation of radiotherapy clinical target volumes for glioblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 68(1): 144-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.12.009] [PMID: 17306935]
[109]
Minniti G, Armosini V, Salvati M, et al. Fractionated stereotactic reirradiation and concurrent temozolomide in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. J Neurooncol 2011; 103(3): 683-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-010-0446-8] [PMID: 21052773]
[110]
Buglione M, Spiazzi L, Saiani F, et al. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, static intensity-modulated and helical intensity-modulated radiotherapy in glioblastoma. Dosimetric comparison in patients with overlap between target volumes and organs at risk. Tumori 2014; 100(3): 272-7.
[PMID: 25076237]
[111]
Hermanto U, Frija EK, Lii MJ, Chang EL, Mahajan A, Woo SY. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for high-grade gliomas: Does IMRT increase the integral dose to normal brain? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007; 67(4): 1135-44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.10.032] [PMID: 17208388]
[112]
Knisely J. Conformal radiotherapy for high-grade gliomas: How much is too much? J Clin Oncol 2002; 20(15): 3357-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2002.99.102] [PMID: 12149313]
[113]
Narayana A, Yamada J, Berry S, et al. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in high-grade gliomas: Clinical and dosimetric results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2006; 64(3): 892-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.05.067] [PMID: 16458777]
[114]
Tsao MN, Mehta MP, Whelan TJ, et al. The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) evidence-based review of the role of radiosurgery for malignant glioma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005; 63(1): 47-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.05.024] [PMID: 16111571]
[115]
Blumenthal DT, Gorlia T, Gilbert MR, et al. Is more better? The impact of extended adjuvant temozolomide in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: A secondary analysis of EORTC and NRG Oncology/RTOG. Neuro-oncol 2017; 19(8): 1119-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nox025] [PMID: 28371907]
[116]
Gilbert MR, Dignam JJ, Armstrong TS, et al. A randomized trial of bevacizumab for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 2014; 370(8): 699-708.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1308573] [PMID: 24552317]
[117]
Chinot OL, Nishikawa R, Mason W, et al. Upfront bevacizumab may extend survival for glioblastoma patients who do not receive second-line therapy: An exploratory analysis of AVAglio. Neuro-oncol 2016; 18(9): 1313-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/now046] [PMID: 27006178]
[118]
[119]
Taal W, Brandsma D, de Bruin HG, et al. Incidence of early pseudo-progression in a cohort of malignant glioma patients treated with chemoirradiation with temozolomide. Cancer 2008; 113(2): 405-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.23562] [PMID: 18484594]
[120]
van den Bent MJ, Wefel JS, Schiff D, et al. Response assessment in neuro-oncology (a report of the RANO group): Assessment of outcome in trials of diffuse low-grade gliomas. Lancet Oncol 2011; 12(6): 583-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70057-2] [PMID: 21474379]
[121]
Brandes AA, Franceschi E, Tosoni A, et al. MGMT promoter methylation status can predict the incidence and outcome of pseudoprogression after concomitant radiochemotherapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26(13): 2192-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.14.8163] [PMID: 18445844]
[122]
Linhares P, Carvalho B, Figueiredo R, Reis RM, Vaz R. Early pseudoprogression following chemoradiotherapy in glioblastoma patients: The value of RANO evaluation. J Oncol 2013.; 2013690585
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/690585] [PMID: 24000284]
[123]
Kirson ED, Dbalý V, Tovaryš F, et al. Alternating electric fields arrest cell proliferation in animal tumor models and human brain tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007; 104(24): 10152-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0702916104] [PMID: 17551011]
[124]
Stupp R, Taillibert S, Kanner AA, et al. Maintenance Therapy With Tumor-Treating Fields Plus TMZ vs. TMZ Alone for Glioblastoma. JAMA 2015; 314(23): 2535-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.16669] [PMID: 26670971]
[125]
Seystahl K, Gramatzki D, Roth P, Weller M. Pharmacotherapies for the treatment of glioblastoma - current evidence and perspectives. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2016; 17(9): 1259-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2016.1176146] [PMID: 27052640]
[126]
Liikanen I, Ahtiainen L, Hirvinen ML, et al. Oncolytic adenovirus with temozolomide induces autophagy and antitumor immune responses in cancer patients. Mol Ther 2013; 21(6): 1212-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mt.2013.51] [PMID: 23546299]
[127]
Migliorini D, Dietrich PY, Stupp R, Linette GP, Posey AD Jr, June CH. CAR T-Cell Therapies in Glioblastoma: A First Look. Clin Cancer Res 2018; 24(3): 535-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-2871] [PMID: 29158268]
[128]
Li X, Wu C, Chen N, et al. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and targeted therapy for glioblastoma. Oncotarget 2016; 7(22): 33440-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7961] [PMID: 26967052]
[129]
Reardon DA, Nabors LB, Mason WP, et al. BI 1200 36 Trial Group and the Canadian Brain Tumour Consortium. Phase I/randomized phase II study of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family blocker, with or without protracted TMZ in adults with recurrent glioblastoma. Neuro-oncol 2015; 17(3): 430-9.
[PMID: 25140039]
[130]
Shenouda G, Souhami L, Petrecca K, et al. A phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant TMZ followed by hypofractionated accelerated radiation therapy with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ for patients with glioblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017; 97(3): 487-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.11.006] [PMID: 28011051]
[131]
Buckner JC. Factors influencing survival in high-grade gliomas. Semin Oncol 2003; 30(6)(Suppl. 19): 10-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.seminoncol.2003.11.031] [PMID: 14765378]
[132]
Zou Y, Bai HX, Wang Z, Yang L. Biopsy vs. resection in the management of high-grade gliomas in the elderly. Neuro-oncol 2015; 17(6): 901-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nov033] [PMID: 25758747]
[133]
Tabatabai G, Stupp R, Wick W, Weller M. Malignant astrocytoma in elderly patients: where do we stand? Curr Opin Neurol 2013; 26(6): 693-700.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000037] [PMID: 24152817]
[134]
Almenawer SA, Badhiwala JH, Alhazzani W, et al. Biopsy vs. partial vs. gross total resection in older patients with high-grade glioma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuro-oncol 2015; 17(6): 868-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nou349] [PMID: 25556920]
[135]
Babu R, Komisarow JM, Agarwal VJ, et al. Glioblastoma in the elderly: The effect of aggressive and modern therapies on survival. J Neurosurg 2016; 124(4): 998-1007.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2015.4.JNS142200] [PMID: 26452121]
[136]
Abdullah KG, Ramayya A, Thawani JP, et al. Factors associated with increased survival after surgical resection of glioblastoma in octogenarians. PLoS One 2015; 10(5); e0127202
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127202] [PMID: 25978638]
[137]
Roa W, Brasher PM, Bauman G, et al. Abbreviated course of radiation therapy in older patients with glioblastoma multiforme: A prospective randomized clinical trial. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22(9): 1583-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.06.082] [PMID: 15051755]
[138]
Roa W, Kepka L, Kumar N, et al. International Atomic Energy Agency Randomized Phase III Study of radiation therapy in elderly and/or frail patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. J Clin Oncol 2015; 33(35): 4145-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.62.6606] [PMID: 26392096]
[139]
Gerstner ER, Yip S, Wang DL, Louis DN, Iafrate AJ, Batchelor TT. Mgmt methylation is a prognostic biomarker in elderly patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Neurology 2009; 73(18): 1509-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181bf9907] [PMID: 19884580]
[140]
Malmström A, Grønberg BH, Marosi C, et al. Temozolomide vs. standard 6-week radiotherapy vs. hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients older than 60 years with glioblastoma: the Nordic randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13(9): 916-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70265-6] [PMID: 22877848]
[141]
Perry JR, Laperriere N, O'Callaghan CJ, et al. A phase III randomized controlled trial of short-course radiotherapy with or without concomitant and adjuvant TMZ in elderly patients with glioblastoma (CCTG CE.6, EORTC 26062-22061, TROG 08.02, NCT00482677). J Clin Oncol 2016; 34(18_suppl) : LBA2.
[142]
Perry JR, Laperriere N, O’Callaghan CJ, et al. Short-Course Radiation plus Temozolomide in Elderly Patients with Glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 2017; 376(11): 1027-37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1611977] [PMID: 28296618]
[143]
Wick W, Platten M, Meisner C, et al. Temozolomide chemotherapy alone vs. radiotherapy alone for malignant astrocytoma in the elderly: The NOA-08 randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13(7): 707-15.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70164-X] [PMID: 22578793]
[144]
Keime-Guibert F, Chinot O, Taillandier L, et al. Radiotherapy for glioblastoma in the elderly. N Engl J Med 2007; 356(15): 1527-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa065901] [PMID: 17429084]
[146]
Zarnett OJ, Sahgal A, Gosio J, et al. Treatment of elderly patients with glioblastoma: A systematic evidence-based analysis. JAMA Neurol 2015; 72(5): 589-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.3739] [PMID: 25822375]
[147]
Reifenberger G, Hentschel B, Felsberg J, et al. Predictive impact of MGMT promoter methylation in glioblastoma of the elderly. Int J Cancer 2012; 131(6): 1342-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27385] [PMID: 22139906]
[148]
Franceschi E, Depenni R, Paccapelo A, et al. Which elderly newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients can benefit from radiotherapy and temozolomide? A PERNO prospective study. J Neurooncol 2016; 128(1): 157-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-016-2093-1] [PMID: 26943851]
[149]
Taylor MD, Northcott PA, Korshunov A, et al. Molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma: The current consensus. Acta Neuropathol 2012; 123(4): 465-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-011-0922-z] [PMID: 22134537]
[150]
Northcott PA, Shih DJ, Peacock J, et al. Subgroup-specific structural variation across 1,000 medulloblastoma genomes. Nature 2012; 488(7409): 49-56.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11327] [PMID: 22832581]
[151]
Ramaswamy V, Remke M, Bouffet E, et al. Risk stratification of childhood medulloblastoma in the molecular era: The current consensus. Acta Neuropathol 2016; 131(6): 821-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-016-1569-6] [PMID: 27040285]
[152]
Ramaswamy V, Remke M, Bouffet E, et al. Recurrence patterns across medulloblastoma subgroups: An integrated clinical and molecular analysis. Lancet Oncol 2013; 14(12): 1200-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70449-2] [PMID: 24140199]
[153]
Ellison DW, Dalton J, Kocak M, et al. Medulloblastoma: clinicopathological correlates of SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups. Acta Neuropathol 2011; 121(3): 381-96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-011-0800-8] [PMID: 21267586]
[156]
Blagodatski A, Poteryaev D, Katanaev VL. Targeting the Wnt pathways for therapies. Mol Cell Ther 2014; 2: 28.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2052-8426-2-28] [PMID: 26056595]
[157]
Thompson EM, Hielscher T, Bouffet E, et al. Prognostic value of medulloblastoma extent of resection after accounting for molecular subgroup: A retrospective integrated clinical and molecular analysis. Lancet Oncol 2016; 17(4): 484-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00581-1] [PMID: 26976201]
[158]
Taylor RE, Bailey CC, Robinson K, et al. Results of a randomized study of preradiation chemotherapy vs. radiotherapy alone for nonmetastatic medulloblastoma: The International Society of Paediatric Oncology/United Kingdom Children’s Cancer Study Group PNET-3 Study. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21(8): 1581-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2003.05.116] [PMID: 12697884]
[159]
Lannering B, Rutkowski S, Doz F, et al. Hyperfractionated vs. conventional radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy in standard-risk medulloblastoma: Results from the randomized multicenter HIT-SIOP PNET 4 trial. J Clin Oncol 2012; 30(26): 3187-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2011.39.8719] [PMID: 22851561]
[160]
Michalski JM, Janss A, Vezina G, et al. Results of COG ACNS0331: A phase iii trial of involved-field radiotherapy (ifrt) and low dose craniospinal irradiation (ldcsi) with chemotherapy in average-risk medulloblastoma: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group Available from: https://www.astro.org/uploaded Files/ _MAIN_SITE/News_and_Publications/News_and_Media_ Center/ Press_Kits/2016/Annual_Meeting/Content_Pieces/ Michalski_ slides.pdf.
[161]
Sterba J, Pavelka Z, Slampa P. Concomitant radiotherapy and metronomic temozolomide in pediatric high-risk brain tumors. Neoplasma 2002; 49(2): 117-20.
[PMID: 12088104]
[162]
Packer RJ, Rood BR, MacDonald TJ. Medulloblastoma: present concepts of stratification into risk groups. Pediatr Neurosurg 2003; 39(2): 60-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000071316] [PMID: 12845195]
[163]
Hoff KV, Hinkes B, Gerber NU, et al. Long-term outcome and clinical prognostic factors in children with medulloblastoma treated in the prospective randomised multicentre trial HIT’91. Eur J Cancer 2009; 45(7): 1209-17.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2009.01.015] [PMID: 19250820]
[164]
Pietsch T, Schmidt R, Remke M, et al. Prognostic significance of clinical, histopathological, and molecular characteristics of medulloblastomas in the prospective HIT2000 multicenter clinical trial cohort. Acta Neuropathol 2014; 128(1): 137-49.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-014-1276-0] [PMID: 24791927]
[165]
von Bueren AO, Kortmann RD, von Hoff K, et al. Treatment of children and adolescents with metastatic medulloblastoma and prognostic relevance of clinical and biologic parameters. J Clin Oncol 2016; 34(34): 4151-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.67.2428] [PMID: 27863192]
[166]
Kool M, Korshunov A, Remke M, et al. Molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma: An international meta-analysis of transcriptome, genetic aberrations, and clinical data of WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas. Acta Neuropathol 2012; 123(4): 473-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-012-0958-8] [PMID: 22358457]
[167]
Taylor RE, Bailey CC, Robinson KJ, et al. Outcome for patients with metastatic (M2-3) medulloblastoma treated with SIOP/UKCCSG PNET-3 chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer 2005; 41(5): 727-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2004.12.017] [PMID: 15763649]
[168]
Sanders RP, Onar A, Boyett JM, et al. M1 Medulloblastoma: high risk at any age. J Neurooncol 2008; 90(3): 351-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-008-9671-9] [PMID: 18704266]
[169]
Merchant TE, Wang M-H, Haida T, et al. Medulloblastoma: long-term results for patients treated with definitive radiation therapy during the computed tomography era. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996; 36(1): 29-35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-3016(96)00274-X] [PMID: 8823256]
[170]
Gandola L, Massimino M, Cefalo G, et al. Hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in the Milan strategy for metastatic medulloblastoma. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27(4): 566-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.18.4176] [PMID: 19075266]
[171]
Juratli TA, Qin N, Cahill DP, Filbin MG. Molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic implications in pediatric high-grade gliomas. Pharmacol Ther 2018; 182: 70-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2017.08.006] [PMID: 28830841]
[172]
Broniscer A, Baker SJ, West AN, et al. Clinical and molecular characteristics of malignant transformation of low-grade glioma in children. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25(6): 682-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.06.8213] [PMID: 17308273]
[173]
Müller K, Schlamann A, Guckenberger M, et al. Craniospinal irradiation with concurrent temozolomide for primary metastatic pediatric high-grade or diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. A first report from the GPOH-HIT-HGG Study Group. Strahlenther Onkol 2014; 190(4): 377-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-013-0513-0] [PMID: 24638239]
[174]
Zapletalova D, André N, Deak L, et al. Metronomic chemotherapy with the COMBAT regimen in advanced pediatric malignancies: A multicenter experience. Oncology 2012; 82(5): 249-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000336483] [PMID: 22538363]
[175]
Young B, Oldfield EH, Markesbery WR, et al. Reoperation for glioblastoma. J Neurosurg 1981; 55(6): 917-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/jns.1981.55.6.0917] [PMID: 6271933]
[176]
Barbagallo GM, Jenkinson MD, Brodbelt AR. ‘Recurrent’ glioblastoma multiforme, when should we reoperate? Br J Neurosurg 2008; 22(3): 452-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688690802182256] [PMID: 18568742]
[177]
Cairncross G, Macdonald D, Ludwin S, et al. Chemotherapy for anaplastic oligodendroglioma. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12(10): 2013-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.1994.12.10.2013] [PMID: 7931469]
[178]
van den Bent MJ, Kros JM, Heimans JJ, et al. Response rate and prognostic factors of recurrent oligodendroglioma treated with procarbazine, CCNU, and vincristine chemotherapy. Neurology 1998; 51(4): 1140-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.51.4.1140] [PMID: 9781544]
[179]
Easaw JC, Mason WP, Perry J, et al. Canadian recommendations for the treatment of recurrent or progressive glioblastoma multiforme. Curr Oncol 2011; 18(3): e126-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/co.v18i3.755] [PMID: 21655151]
[180]
Gállego Pérez-Larraya J, Lahutte M, Petrirena G, et al. Response assessment in recurrent glioblastoma treated with irinotecan-bevacizumab: comparative analysis of the Macdonald, RECIST, RANO, and RECIST + F criteria. Neuro-oncol 2012; 14(5): 667-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nos070] [PMID: 22492961]
[181]
van den Bent MJ, Pryor FM, Ramsay RE. RE, Rowan AJ, AJ, et al. . Final results of the EORTC Brain Tumor Group randomized phase II TAVAREC trial on temozolomide with or without bevacizumab in 1st recurrence grade II/III glioma without 1p19q co-deletion. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35: 2009.
[182]
Wick W, Gorlia T, Bendszus M, et al. Lomustine and Bevacizumab in Progressive Glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 2017; 377(20): 1954-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1707358] [PMID: 29141164]
[183]
National Cancer Institute. Cediranib Maleate and Olaparib compared to Bevacizumab in treating patients with recurrent Glioblastoma Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02974621
[184]
Amichetti M, Amelio D. A Review of the Role of Re-Irradiation in Recurrent High-Grade Glioma (HGG). Cancers (Basel) 2011; 3(4): 4061-89.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers3044061] [PMID: 24213125]
[185]
Nieder C, Andratschke NH, Grosu AL. Increasing frequency of reirradiation studies in radiation oncology: Systematic review of highly cited articles. Am J Cancer Res 2013; 3(2): 152-8.
[PMID: 23593538]
[186]
Nieder C, Andratschke NH, Grosu AL. Re-irradiation for recurrent primary brain tumors. Anticancer Res 2016; 36(10): 4985-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.11067] [PMID: 27798857]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 16
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2020
Published on: 14 September, 2020
Page: [221 - 245]
Pages: 25
DOI: 10.2174/1573394715666191017153045
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 11
HTML: 2