Background: In resource-rich settings, the rate of mother-to-child transmission of human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has dramatically decreased by virtue of a combination of preventive
strategies during the last two decades.
Case Presentation: We present a case of progressive developmental milestone loss in a toddler with
previously unknown congenitally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, complicated
by an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) coinfection.
Conclusion: Our report underscores the differential diagnosis between HIV encephalopathy and
EBV encephalitis and the vertical transmission of the HIV infection, which constitutes an alarming
issue in terms of public health.