Comparative Effectiveness of Agmatine and Choline Treatment in Rats with Cognitive Impairment Induced by AlCl3 and Forced Swim Stress

Author(s): Hira Rafi*, Fahad Ahmad, Javaria Anis, Ruba Khan, Hamna Rafiq, Muhammad Farhan

Journal Name: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Continued as Current Reviews in Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology

Volume 15 , Issue 3 , 2020

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Graphical Abstract:


Aim: Endogenous agmatine has a significant role in learning and memory processes as a neurotransmitter. Various studies described the physiological role of endogenous agmatine in learning and memory of multiple cognitive tasks suggesting elevated levels of agmatine during the learning process in the rat brain. Dietary intake of choline showed correlation with cognitive functions in human subjects and treatment with choline supplements validated the ability to diminish learning and cognitive impairment dementias.

Methods: 36 Albino rats were equally divided into three groups previously: a) control-water, b) Test I - AlCl3 (100 mg/Kg body weight), and c) Test II - Forced swim stress (FSS) for 14 days. On the next day of AlCl3 and FSS last administration, animals were allocated into further three groups and received the following treatments: a. water was given orally to the control group, b. Agmatine (100 mg/Kg Body Weight) group, and c. Choline (100 mg/Kg Body Weight) group for the next 14 days. Behaviors were assessed in Light/Dark Box, Open Field, Novel Object Recognition Test (NOR), T Maze Test, and Morris Water Maze Test.

Results: Animals administered with agmatine demonstrated increased time spent in bright areas of light/dark box and square crossed while improved spatial memory in Morris water maze and T maze test and enhanced discrimination of novel object in NOR were observed in learning and memory paradigms along with choline.

Conclusion: The present study determines that agmatine at the dose of (100 mg/kg body weight) attenuates memory and cognitive impairment in comparison with choline supplements.

Keywords: Agmatine, choline, learning, memory, cognitive impairment, morris water maze test.

open access plus

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2020
Published on: 15 December, 2020
Page: [251 - 264]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1574884714666191016152143

Article Metrics

PDF: 15