Background: Obligate intracellular parasites of Leishmania genus belong to the family
Trypanosomatidae and more than twenty species cause this neglected vector-borne infection
throughout the globe.
Objective: The current study was aimed to assess the antileishmanial activity of Amphotericin B
(AmB) and AmB formulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in vitro and in vivo.
Materials and Methods: In the present research, microemulsification and high shear homogenization
methods were used to prepare SLNs. Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes were cultured
in RPMI 1640 and incubated for three time points of 24, 48 and 72 h at 25±1°C. Then, the
MTT colorimetric assay was employed for obtaining 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Finally,
the efficacy of AmB and AmB-SLN was evaluated for the treatment of experimental cutaneous
leishmaniasis (CL) in BALB/c mice.
Results: The average diameter sizes of prepared AmB-SLN were <180 nm and monodisperse
preparations with polydispersity index 0.21±0.29. The antileishmanial activity of AmB and AmBSLN
revealed a dose and time-dependent manner in vitro. The IC50 values of AmB (38.18±1.33,
25.06±2.00, and 13.87±0.61 μg/ml) and AmB-SLN (0.40±0.02, 0.26±0.02, and 0.14±0.01 μg/ml)
were estimated after 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. In all BALB/c treatment groups, the diameter
of lesions was significantly smaller than the control group.
Conclusion: AmB-SLN was significantly more potent than AmB in vitro and in vivo. The discovery
of new effective drugs based on nanocarriers, such as SLN, is practical and opens a new window
for the treatment of CL.