Decreasing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns are driving the utilization of renewable
feedstocks as green fuel sources. Heteropolyacids (HPAs) are one of the most promising catalytic
materials in green biodiesel production. Their unique chemical and physical properties are outstanding
and could allow the preparation of composite materials. In this review, esterification
/transesterification for biodiesel synthesis using various types of HPAs base catalysts including pristine
HPAs, substituted HPAs, supported HPAs and encapsulated HPAs has been described. In addition,
esterification/transesterification reaction conditions such as reaction time and temperature, alcohol
content and catalyst dosage affect the catalytic activity of the HPAs base catalysts, which are also
discussed in detail. Finally, the present drawbacks and future challenges on HPAs based catalytic systems
for the production of biodiesel are also addressed in the concluding remarks.
Keywords: Heteropolyacids, heterogeneous catalysis, esterification and transesterification, biodiesel, feedstocks, diesel engines.
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