Advances in Pharmacological Activities and Mechanisms of Glycyrrhizic Acid

Author(s): Kun Chen*, Rong Yang, Fa-Qian Shen, Hai-Liang Zhu*

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 27 , Issue 36 , 2020


  Journal Home
Translate in Chinese
Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor

Abstract:

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) is widely regarded as an important medicinal plant and has been used for centuries in traditional medicine because of its therapeutic properties. Studies have shown that metabolites isolated from licorice have many pharmacological activities, such as antiinflammatory, anti-viral, participation in immune regulation, anti-tumor and other activities. This article gives an overview of the pharmacological activities and mechanisms of licorice metabolites and the adverse reactions that need attention. This review helps to further investigate the possibility of licorice as a potential drug for various diseases. It is hoped that this review can provide a relevant theoretical basis for relevant scholars’ research and their own learning.

Keywords: Licorice, glycyrrhizic acid, metabolites, pharmacological activities, drug, side effect.

[1]
Lee, J.E.; Lee, J.Y.; Kim, J.; Lee, K.; Choi, S.U.; Ryu, S.Y. Two minor chalcone acetylglycosides from the roots extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Arch. Pharm. Res., 2015, 38(7), 1299-1303.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-014-0526-y] [PMID: 25479707]
[2]
Lee, C.S.; Kim, Y.J.; Han, E.S. Glycyrrhizin protection against 3-morpholinosydnonime-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in lung epithelial cells. Life Sci., 2007, 80(19), 1759-1767.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2007.02.003] [PMID: 17346752]
[3]
Kim, K.J.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, K.W.; Jeong, J.W. The anti-angiogenic activities of glycyrrhizic acid in tumor progression. Phytother. Res., 2013, 27(6), 841-846.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.4800] [PMID: 22899320]
[4]
Li, S.; Zhu, J.H.; Cao, L.P.; Sun, Q.; Liu, H.D.; Li, W.D.; Li, J.S.; Hang, C.H. Growth inhibitory in vitro effects of glycyrrhizic acid in U251 glioblastoma cell line. Neurol. Sci., 2014, 35(7), 1115-1120.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-014-1661-4] [PMID: 24514918]
[5]
Harada, S. The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope. Biochem. J., 2005, 392(Pt 1), 191-199.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20051069] [PMID: 16053446]
[6]
Long, D.R.; Mead, J.; Hendricks, J.M.; Hardy, M.E.; Voyich, J.M. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus survival and attenuates virulence gene expression. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 2013, 57(1), 241-247.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01023-12] [PMID: 23114775]
[7]
Kwon, H.J.; Kim, H.H.; Ryu, Y.B.; Kim, J.H.; Jeong, H.J.; Lee, S.W.; Chang, J.S.; Cho, K.O.; Rho, M.C.; Park, S.J.; Lee, W.S. In vitro anti-rotavirus activity of polyphenol compounds isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2010, 18(21), 7668-7674.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2010.07.073] [PMID: 20850329]
[8]
Feng Yeh, C.; Wang, K.C.; Chiang, L.C.; Shieh, D.E.; Yen, M.H.; San Chang, J. Water extract of licorice had anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2013, 148(2), 466-473.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.04.040] [PMID: 23643542]
[9]
Wu, T.Y.; Khor, T.O.; Saw, C.L.L.; Loh, S.C.; Chen, A.I.; Lim, S.S.; Park, J.H.Y.; Cai, L.; Kong, A.N.T. Anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidative stress activities and differential regulation of Nrf2-mediated genes by non-polar fractions of tea Chrysanthemum zawadskii and licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis. AAPS J., 2011, 13(1), 1-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-010-9239-4] [PMID: 20967519]
[10]
Chandrasekaran, C.V.; Deepak, H.B.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Kathiresan, S.; Sangli, G.K.; Deepak, M.; Agarwal, A. Dual inhibitory effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™) on COX and LOX products. Phytomedicine, 2011, 18(4), 278-284.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.001] [PMID: 20864324]
[11]
Hong, Y.K.; Wu, H.T.; Ma, T.; Liu, W.J.; He, X.J. Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra polysaccharides on immune and antioxidant activities in high-fat mice. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2009, 45(1), 61-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2009.04.001] [PMID: 19447260]
[12]
Zhao, X.; Liu, J.; Yang, S.; Chen, C.; Yin, H.; Li, T.; Wang, Q.; Li, X.; Lin, Y.; Cai, D. Diammonium glycyrrhizinate alleviates hepatopulmonary syndrome via restoring superoxide dismutase 3 activity in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2017, 807(April), 144-150.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.04.025] [PMID: 28435094]
[13]
Zhao, Z.; Wang, W.; Guo, H.; Zhou, D. Antidepressant-like effect of liquiritin from Glycyrrhiza uralensis in chronic variable stress induced depression model rats. Behav. Brain Res., 2008, 194(1), 108-113.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2008.06.030] [PMID: 18655806]
[14]
Michel, H.E.; Tadros, M.G.; Abdel-Naim, A.B.; Khalifa, A.E. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) disrupting effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract in mice: a possible role of monoamines. Neurosci. Lett., 2013, 544, 110-114.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2013.03.055] [PMID: 23583589]
[15]
Lee, C.S.; Yang, J.C.; Kim, Y.J.; Jang, E.R.; Kim, W.; Myung, S.C. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid potentiates apoptotic effect of trichostatin A on human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2010, 649(1-3), 354-361.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.09.047] [PMID: 20868669]
[16]
Wagle, A.; Seong, S.H.; Zhao, B.T.; Woo, M.H.; Jung, H.A.; Choi, J.S. Comparative study of selective in vitro and in silico BACE1 inhibitory potential of glycyrrhizin together with its metabolites, 18α- and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, isolated from Hizikia fusiformis. Arch. Pharm. Res., 2018, 41(4), 409-418.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-018-1018-2] [PMID: 29532412]
[17]
Karkanis, A.; Martins, N.; Petropoulos, S.A.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Phytochemical composition, health effects, and crop management of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza Glabra L.): a medicinal plant. Food Rev. Int., 2018, 34(2), 182-203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2016.1261300]
[18]
Shetty, A.V.; Thirugnanam, S.; Dakshinamoorthy, G.; Samykutty, A.; Zheng, G.; Chen, A.; Bosland, M.C.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.; Gnanasekar, M. 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid targets prostate cancer cells by down-regulating inflammation-related genes. Int. J. Oncol., 2011, 39(3), 635-640.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2011.1061] [PMID: 21637916]
[19]
Liang, B.; Guo, X.L.; Jin, J.; Ma, Y.C.; Feng, Z.Q. Glycyrrhizic acid inhibits apoptosis and fibrosis in carbon-tetrachloride-induced rat liver injury. World J. Gastroenterol., 2015, 21(17), 5271-5280.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v21.i17.5271] [PMID: 25954100]
[20]
Qu, Y.; Zong, L.; Xu, M.; Dong, Y.; Lu, L. Effects of 18-glycyrrhizin on TGF-B1/smad signaling pathway in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. 2015, 8(2), pp. 1292-1301.
[PMID: 25973013]
[21]
Tang, B.; Qiao, H.; Meng, F.; Sun, X. Glycyrrhizin attenuates endotoxin-induced acute liver injury after partial hepatectomy in rats. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res., 2007, 40(12), 1637-1646.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2006005000173] [PMID: 17994167]
[22]
Li, J.Y.; Cao, H.Y.; Liu, P.; Cheng, G.H.; Sun, M.Y. Glycyrrhizic acid in the treatment of liver diseases: literature review. BioMed Res. Int., 2014, 2014872139
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/872139] [PMID: 24963489]
[23]
Lieberman, S. Natural Interventions for Treating Hepatitis C: a Review of the Scientific Literature. Alternative and Complemenary Therapies, 2002, 8(4), 207-211.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/107628002320351325]
[24]
Yan, T.; Wang, H.; Zhao, M.; Yagai, T.; Chai, Y.; Krausz, K.W.; Xie, C.; Cheng, X.; Zhang, J.; Che, Y.; Li, f.; Wu, Y.; Broker, C.N.; Gonzalez, F.J.; Wang, G.; Hao, H. Glycyrrhizin protects against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury via alleviating tumor necrosis factor -mediated apoptosis. Drug Metab. Dispos., 2016, 44(5), 720-731.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.116.069419] [PMID: 26965985]
[25]
Sil, R.; Ray, D.; Chakraborti, A.S. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage in experimental rat model. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 2015, 409(1-2), 177-189.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-015-2523-y] [PMID: 26400710]
[26]
Hsiang, C.Y.; Lin, L.J.; Kao, S.T.; Lo, H.Y.; Chou, S.T.; Ho, T.Y. Glycyrrhizin, silymarin and ursodeoxycholic acid regulate a common hepatoprotective pathway in HepG2 cells. Phytomedicine, 2015, 22(7-8), 768-777.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2015.05.053] [PMID: 26141764]
[27]
Tsai, J.J.; Kuo, H.C.; Lee, K.F.; Tsai, T.H. Glycyrrhizin represses total parenteral nutrition-associated acute liver injury in rats by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2013, 14(6), 12563-12580.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms140612563] [PMID: 23771023]
[28]
Sil, R.; Chakraborti, A.S. Oxidative inactivation of liver mitochondria in high fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats: effect of glycyrrhizin treatment. Phytother. Res., 2016, 30(9), 1503-1512.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5654] [PMID: 27255442]
[29]
Park, S.Y.; Lim, S.S.; Kim, J.K.; Kang, I.J.; Kim, J.S.; Lee, C.; Kim, J.; Park, J.H.Y. Hexane-ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis containing licoricidin inhibits the metastatic capacity of DU145 human prostate cancer cells. Br. J. Nutr., 2010, 104(9), 1272-1282.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510002114] [PMID: 20487583]
[30]
Gwak, G.Y.; Moon, T.G.; Lee, D.H.; Yoo, B.C. Glycyrrhizin attenuates HMGB1-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by inhibiting the p38-dependent mitochondrial pathway. World J. Gastroenterol., 2012, 18(7), 679-684.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v18.i7.679] [PMID: 22363140]
[31]
Kudo, T.; Okamura, S.; Zhang, Y.; Masuo, T.; Mori, M. Topical application of glycyrrhizin preparation ameliorates experimentally induced colitis in rats. World J. Gastroenterol., 2011, 17(17), 2223-2228.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v17.i17.2223] [PMID: 21633533]
[32]
Yuan, H.; Ji, W.S.; Wu, K.X.; Jiao, J.X.; Sun, L.H.; Feng, Y.T. Anti-inflammatory effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate in a rat model of ulcerative colitis. World J. Gastroenterol., 2006, 12(28), 4578-4581.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v12.i28.4578] [PMID: 16874877]
[33]
Lee, C.H.; Park, S.W.; Kim, Y.S.; Kang, S.S.; Kim, J.A.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, S.M. Protective mechanism of glycyrrhizin on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2007, 30(10), 1898-1904.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.30.1898] [PMID: 17917259]
[34]
Pawar, S.H.; Shete, R.V.; Patil, B.M.; Pattankude, V.S.; Otari, K.V.; Kore, K.J. Effect of glycyrrhizic acid, ammonium salt in experimental animal models of inflammatory bowel disease. Int. J Pharm. Life Sci., 2010, 1(8), 479-491.
[35]
Zhang, H.; Zhang, R.; Chen, J.; Shi, M.; Li, W.; Zhang, X. High mobility group box1 inhibitor glycyrrhizic acid attenuates kidney injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Kidney Blood Press. Res., 2017, 42(5), 894-904.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485045] [PMID: 29241180]
[36]
Nishimoto, Y.; Hisatsune, A.; Katsuki, H.; Miyata, T.; Yokomizo, K.; Isohama, Y. Glycyrrhizin attenuates mucus production by inhibition of MUC5AC mRNA expression in vivo and in vitro. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 2010, 113(1), 76-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.09344FP] [PMID: 20453436]
[37]
Ni, Y.F.; Kuai, J.K.; Lu, Z.F.; Yang, G.D.; Fu, H.Y.; Wang, J.; Tian, F.; Yan, X.L.; Zhao, Y.C.; Wang, Y.J.; Jiang, T. Glycyrrhizin treatment is associated with attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. J. Surg. Res., 2011, 165(1), e29-e35.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2010.10.004] [PMID: 21074783]
[38]
Lee, J.; Jung, E.; Park, J.; Jung, K.; Park, E.; Kim, J.; Hong, S.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Lee, S.; Park, D. Glycyrrhizin induces melanogenesis by elevating A cAMP level in B16 melanoma cells. J. Invest. Dermatol., 2005, 124(2), 405-411.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-202X.2004.23606.x] [PMID: 15675961]
[39]
Yin, Z.; Zhu, W.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, Q.; Guo, S.; Liu, T.; Li, S.; Chen, X.; Peng, D.; Ouyang, Z. Glycyrrhizic acid suppresses osteoclast differentiation and postmenopausal osteoporosis by modulating the NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling pathways. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2019, 859172550
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.172550] [PMID: 31323222]
[40]
Su, S.; Wu, J.; Gong, T.; He, K.; Feng, C.; Zhang, M.; Li, B.; Xia, X. Inhibition of high mobility group box 1-toll-like receptor-4 signaling by glycyrrhizin contributes to the attenuation of cold ischemic injury of liver in a rat model. Transplant. Proc., 2016, 48(1), 191-198.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2015.12.014] [PMID: 26915867]
[41]
Kim, Y.M.; Kim, H.J.; Chang, K.C. Glycyrrhizin reduces HMGB1 secretion in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 cells and endotoxemic mice by p38/Nrf2-dependent induction of HO-1. Int. Immunopharmacol., 2015, 26(1), 112-118.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2015.03.014] [PMID: 25812767]
[42]
Wang, W.; Zhao, F.; Fang, Y.; Li, X.; Shen, L.; Cao, T.; Zhu, H. Glycyrrhizin protects against porcine endotoxemia through modulation of systemic inflammatory response. Crit. Care, 2013, 17(2), R44.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/cc12558] [PMID: 23497622]
[43]
Sun, Y.; Cai, T.T.; Shen, Y.; Zhou, X.B.; Chen, T.; Zhu, Q. Si-Ni-San, Traditional chinese prescription, and its active ingredient glycyrrhizin ameliorate experimental colitis through regulating cytokine balance. 2009, 9(12), 1437-1443.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2009.08.017] [PMID: 19733696]
[44]
Zhai, C.L.; Zhang, M.Q.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, H.X.; Wang, J.M.; An, G.P.; Wang, Y.Y.; Li, L. Glycyrrhizin protects rat heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury through blockade of HMGB1-dependent phospho-JNK/Bax pathway. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 2012, 33(12), 1477-1487.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/aps.2012.112] [PMID: 23064724]
[45]
Ye, S.; Zhu, Y.; Ming, Y.; She, X.; Liu, H.; Ye, Q. Glycyrrhizin protects mice against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of apoptosis and inflammation by downregulating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Exp. Ther. Med., 2014, 7(5), 1247-1252.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2014.1570] [PMID: 24940420]
[46]
Wang, W.; Chen, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Y.; Li, S.; Tan, L.; Gao, J.; Fang, X.; Luo, A. Glycyrrhizin attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits in neonatal rats via its anti-inflammatory activity. Neuroscience, 2016, 316, 328-336.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.11.001] [PMID: 26550949]
[47]
Mollica, L.; De Marchis, F.; Spitaleri, A.; Dallacosta, C.; Pennacchini, D.; Zamai, M.; Agresti, A.; Trisciuoglio, L.; Musco, G.; Bianchi, M.E. Glycyrrhizin binds to high-mobility group box 1 protein and inhibits its cytokine activities. Chem. Biol., 2007, 14(4), 431-441.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2007.03.007] [PMID: 17462578]
[48]
Fu, Y.; Zhou, E.; Wei, Z.; Song, X.; Liu, Z.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Zhang, N.; Liu, G.; Yang, Z. Glycyrrhizin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by reducing TLR4 recruitment into lipid rafts in RAW264.7 cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2014, 1840(6), 1755-1764.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.01.024] [PMID: 24462946]
[49]
Fu, Y.; Zhou, E.; Wei, Z.; Liang, D.; Wang, W.; Wang, T.; Guo, M.; Zhang, N.; Yang, Z. Glycyrrhizin inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mouse mastitis model. FEBS J., 2014, 281(11), 2543-2557.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.12801] [PMID: 24698106]
[50]
Fakhari, S.; Abdolmohammadi, K.; Panahi, Y.; Nikkhoo, B.; Peirmohammadi, H.; Rahmani, M.R.; Moghadam, A.S.; Jalili, A. Glycyrrhizin attenuates tissue injury and reduces neutrophil accumulation in experimental acute pancreatitis. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol., 2013, 7(1), 101-109.
[PMID: 24427330]
[51]
Yildirim, A.O.; Ince, M.; Eyi, Y.E.; Tuncer, S.K.; Kaldirim, U.; Eroglu, M.; Oztas, E.; Cayci, T.; Kilic, A.; Inal, V.; Yamanel, L.; Yasar, M. The effects of glycyrrhizin on experimental acute pancreatitis in rats. Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci., 2013, 17(22), 2981-2987.
[PMID: 24302175]
[52]
Fakhari, S.; Jalili, A.; Panahi, Y.; Abdolmohammadi, K.; Rahmani, M.R.; Nikkhoo, B.; Peirmohammadi, H.; Moghadam, A.S. Glycyrrhizin attenuates tissue injury and reduces neutrophil accumulation in experimental acute pancreatitis. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol., 2013, 7(1), 101-109.
[PMID: 24427330]
[53]
Xiang, K.; Cheng, L.; Luo, Z.; Ren, J.; Tian, F.; Tang, L.; Chen, T.; Dai, R. Glycyrrhizin suppresses the expressions of HMGB1 and relieves the severity of traumatic pancreatitis in rats. PLoS One, 2014, 9(12)e115982
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115982] [PMID: 25541713]
[54]
Sun, X.; Zeng, H.; Wang, Q.; Yu, Q.; Wu, J.; Feng, Y.; Deng, P.; Zhang, H. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates inflammatory pain by inhibiting microglial activation-mediated inflammatory response via blockage of the HMGB1-TLR4-NF-kB pathway. Exp. Cell Res., 2018, 369(1), 112-119.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2018.05.012] [PMID: 29763588]
[55]
Koike, K. Expression of junB is markedly stimulated by glycyrrhizin in a human hepatoma cell line. Oncol. Rep., 2011, 25(3), 609-617.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2011.1137] [PMID: 21225234]
[56]
Huang, R.Y.; Chu, Y.L.; Jiang, Z.B.; Chen, X.M.; Zhang, X.; Zeng, X. Glycyrrhizin suppresses lung adenocarcinoma cell growth through inhibition of thromboxane synthase. Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 2014, 33(2), 375-388.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000356677] [PMID: 24556579]
[57]
Jung, G.D.; Yang, J.Y.; Song, E.S.; Par, J.W. Stimulation of melanogenesis by glycyrrhizin in B16 melanoma cells. Exp. Mol. Med., 2001, 33(3), 131-135.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emm.2001.23] [PMID: 11642548]
[58]
Park, J.M.; Park, S.H.; Hong, K.S.; Han, Y.M.; Jang, S.H.; Kim, E.H.; Hahm, K.B. Special licorice extracts containing lowered glycyrrhizin and enhanced licochalcone A prevented Helicobacter pylori-initiated, salt diet-promoted gastric tumorigenesis. Helicobacter, 2014, 19(3), 221-236.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12121] [PMID: 24646026]
[59]
Ashfaq, U.A.; Masoud, M.S.; Nawaz, Z.; Riazuddin, S. Glycyrrhizin as antiviral agent against hepatitis C Virus. J. Transl. Med., 2011, 9(1), 112.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-9-112] [PMID: 21762538]
[60]
Smolarczyk, R.; Cichoń, T.; Matuszczak, S.; Mitrus, I.; Lesiak, M.; Kobusińska, M.; Kamysz, W.; Jarosz, M.; Sieroń, A.; Szala, S. The role of glycyrrhizin, an inhibitor of HMGB1 protein, in anticancer therapy. Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.), 2012, 60(5), 391-399.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00005-012-0183-0] [PMID: 22922889]
[61]
Matsumoto, Y.; Matsuura, T.; Aoyagi, H.; Matsuda, M.; Hmwe, S.S.; Date, T.; Watanabe, N.; Watashi, K.; Suzuki, R.; Ichinose, S.; Wake, K.; Suzuki, T.; Miyamura, T.; Wakita, T.; Aizaki, H. Antiviral activity of glycyrrhizin against hepatitis C virus in vitro. PLoS One, 2013, 8(7)e68992
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068992] [PMID: 23874843]
[62]
Cherng, J.M.; Lin, H.J.; Hung, M.S.; Lin, Y.R.; Chan, M.H.; Lin, J.C. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB is associated with neuroprotective effects of glycyrrhizic acid on glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in primary neurons. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2006, 547(1-3), 10-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.06.080] [PMID: 16952351]
[63]
Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.; van Duijnhoven, G.C.F.; van Vliet, S.J.; Krieger, E.; Vriend, G.; Figdor, C.G.; van Kooyk, Y. Identification of different binding sites in the dendritic cell-specific receptor DC-SIGN for intercellular adhesion molecule 3 and HIV-1. J. Biol. Chem., 2002, 277(13), 11314-11320.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111532200] [PMID: 11799126]
[64]
Wang, J.H.; Kwas, C.; Wu, L. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), but not ICAM-2 and -3, is important for dendritic cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J. Virol., 2009, 83(9), 4195-4204.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00006-09] [PMID: 19211748]
[65]
Huang, W.; Chen, X.; Li, Q.; Li, P.; Zhao, G.; Xu, M.; Xie, P. Inhibition of intercellular adhesion in herpex simplex virus infection by glycyrrhizin. Cell Biochem. Biophys., 2012, 62(1), 137-140.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12013-011-9271-8] [PMID: 21874590]
[66]
Cherng, J.M.; Lin, H.J.; Hsu, Y.H.; Hung, M.S.; Lin, J.C. A quantitative bioassay for HIV-1 gene expression based on UV activation: effect of glycyrrhizic acid. Antiviral Res., 2004, 62(1), 27-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2003.11.005] [PMID: 15026199]
[67]
Laconi, S.; Madeddu, M.A.; Pompei, R. Autophagy activation and antiviral activity by a licorice triterpene. Phytother. Res., 2014, 28(12), 1890-1892.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5189] [PMID: 24919871]
[68]
Menegazzi, M.; Di Paola, R.; Mazzon, E.; Genovese, T.; Crisafulli, C.; Dal Bosco, M.; Zou, Z.; Suzuki, H.; Cuzzocrea, S. Glycyrrhizin attenuates the development of carrageenan-induced lung injury in mice. Pharmacol. Res., 2008, 58(1), 22-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2008.05.012] [PMID: 18590825]
[69]
Baltina, L.A.; Zarubaev, V.V.; Baltina, L.A.; Orshanskaya, I.A.; Fairushina, A.I.; Kiselev, O.I.; Yunusov, M.S. Glycyrrhizic acid derivatives as influenza A/H1N1 virus inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2015, 25(8), 1742-1746.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.02.074] [PMID: 25801933]
[70]
Michaelis, M.; Geiler, J.; Naczk, P.; Sithisarn, P.; Ogbomo, H.; Altenbrandt, B.; Leutz, A.; Doerr, H.W.; Cinatl, J., Jr Glycyrrhizin inhibits highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A virus-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in human macrophages. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. (Berl.), 2010, 199(4), 291-297.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-010-0155-0] [PMID: 20386921]
[71]
Moisy, D.; Avilov, S.V.; Jacob, Y.; Laoide, B.M.; Ge, X.; Baudin, F.; Naffakh, N.; Jestin, J.L. HMGB1 protein binds to influenza virus nucleoprotein and promotes viral replication. J. Virol., 2012, 86(17), 9122-9133.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00789-12] [PMID: 22696656]
[72]
Hardy, M.E.; Hendricks, J.M.; Paulson, J.M.; Faunce, N.R. 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits rotavirus replication in culture. Virol. J., 2012, 9, 96.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-9-96] [PMID: 22616823]
[73]
Huang, Y.; Cai, T.; Xia, X.; Cai, Y.; Wu, X.Y. Research advances in the intervention of inflammation and cancer by active ingredients of traditional chinese medicine. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci., 2016, 19(1), 114-126.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/j3sg7k] [PMID: 20386921]
[74]
Park, I.K.; Kim, J.; Lee, Y.S.; Shin, S.C. In vivo fungicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against six phytopathogenic fungi. Int. J. Pest Manage., 2008, 54(1), 63-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670870701549665]
[75]
Bodet, C.; La, V.D.; Gafner, S.; Bergeron, C.; Grenier, D. A licorice extract reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages and whole blood. J. Periodontol., 2008, 79(9), 1752-1761.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2008.080052] [PMID: 18771378]
[76]
Yoshida, T.; Yoshida, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Herndon, D.N.; Suzuki, F. Pivotal advance: glycyrrhizin restores the impaired production of beta-defensins in tissues surrounding the burn area and improves the resistance of burn mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound infection. J. Leukoc. Biol., 2010, 87(1), 35-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.1208760] [PMID: 19843573]
[77]
Curreli, F.; Friedman-Kien, A.E.; Flore, O. Glycyrrhizic acid alters Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency, triggering p53-mediated apoptosis in transformed B lymphocytes. J. Clin. Invest., 2005, 115(3), 642-652.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI200523334] [PMID: 15765147]
[78]
Cohen, J.I. Licking latency with licorice. J. Clin. Invest., 2005, 115(3), 591-593.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI24507] [PMID: 15765143]
[79]
Zhang, X.; Yang, H.; Yue, S.; He, G.; Qu, S.; Zhang, Z.; Ma, B.; Ding, R.; Peng, W.; Zhang, H.; Yang, Z.; Dou, K.; Tao, K.; Li, X. The mTOR inhibition in concurrence with ERK1/2 activation is involved in excessive autophagy induced by glycyrrhizin in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Med., 2017, 6(8), 1941-1951.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1127] [PMID: 28675698]
[80]
Kim, J.; Joo, I.; Kim, H.; Han, Y. 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid induces immunological adjuvant activity of Th1 against Candida albicans surface mannan extract. Phytomedicine, 2013, 20(11), 951-955.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2013.04.008] [PMID: 23746951]
[81]
Deng, Q.P.; Wang, M.J.; Zeng, X.; Chen, G.G.; Huang, R.Y. Effects of glycyrrhizin in a mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma. Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 2017, 41(4), 1383-1392.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000467897] [PMID: 28315871]
[82]
Zhou, T.; Deng, X.; Qiu, J. Antimicrobial activity of licochalcone E against Staphylococcus aureus and its impact on the production of staphylococcal alpha-toxin. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2012, 22(6), 800-805.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1112.12020] [PMID: 22573157]
[83]
Dai, X.H.; Li, H.E.; Lu, C.J.; Wang, J.F.; Dong, J.; Wei, J.Y.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Tan, W.; Deng, X.M.; Zhao, S.H.; Zhang, M.J. Liquiritigenin prevents Staphylococcus aureus-mediated lung cell injury via inhibiting the production of α-hemolysin. J. Asian Nat. Prod. Res., 2013, 15(4), 390-399.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2013.771344] [PMID: 23464667]
[84]
Li, W.; Liu, X.; Zhang, B.; Qi, D.; Zhang, L.; Jin, Y.; Yang, H. Overexpression of candidate tumor suppressor ECRG4 inhibits glioma proliferation and invasion. J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res., 2010, 29(1), 89.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-9966-29-89] [PMID: 20598162]
[85]
Staudt, L.M. Oncogenic activation of NF-kappaB. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol., 2010, 2(6)a000109
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a000109] [PMID: 20516126]
[86]
Wadajkar, A.S.; Dancy, J.G.; Hersh, D.S.; Anastasiadis, P.; Tran, N.L.; Woodworth, G.F.; Winkles, J.A.; Kim, A.J. Tumor-targeted nanotherapeutics: overcoming treatment barriers for glioblastoma. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol., 2017, 9(4)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wnan.1439] [PMID: 27813323]
[87]
Messier, C.; Grenier, D. Effect of licorice compounds licochalcone A, glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid on growth and virulence properties of Candida albicans. Mycoses, 2011, 54(6), e801-e806.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2011.02028.x] [PMID: 21615543]
[88]
Cai, Y.; Zhao, B.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, J.; Li, G. The selective effect of glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid on topoisomerase IIα and apoptosis in combination with etoposide on triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2017, 809, 87-97.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.05.026] [PMID: 28506909]
[89]
Li, J.; Fan, X.; Wang, Q. Hypertensive crisis with 2 target organ impairment induced by glycyrrhizin: a case report. Medicine (Baltimore), 2018, 97(11)e0073
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010073] [PMID: 29538199]
[90]
Hua, H.; Liang, Z.; Li, W.; Meng, Y.; Li, X.; Zhang, Z.; Lu, C.; Meng, J.; Shan, F. Phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells (DCs) induced by purified glycyrrhizin (GL). Int. Immunopharmacol., 2012, 12(3), 518-525.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2012.01.006] [PMID: 22293534]
[91]
Tu, C.T.; Li, J.; Wang, F.P.; Li, L.; Wang, J.Y.; Jiang, W. Glycyrrhizin regulates CD4+T cell response during liver fibrogenesis via JNK, ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway. Int. Immunopharmacol., 2012, 14(4), 410-421.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2012.08.013] [PMID: 22940540]
[92]
Qiu, J.; Feng, H.; Xiang, H.; Wang, D.; Xia, L.; Jiang, Y.; Song, K.; Lu, J.; Yu, L.; Deng, X. Influence of subinhibitory concentrations of licochalcone A on the secretion of enterotoxins A and B by Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 2010, 307(2), 135-141.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.01973.x] [PMID: 20412304]
[93]
Song, L.J.; Wang, Z.X.; Chi, B.R.; Yang, G.Z. Regulatory effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on Th1/Th2 deviation in bronchial asthma: experiment with rats. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, 2007, 87(40), 2865-2867.
[PMID: 18167296]
[94]
Ram, A.; Mabalirajan, U.; Das, M.; Bhattacharya, I.; Dinda, A.K.; Gangal, S.V.; Ghosh, B. Glycyrrhizin alleviates experimental allergic asthma in mice. Int. Immunopharmacol., 2006, 6(9), 1468-1477.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2006.04.020] [PMID: 16846841]
[95]
Ren, X.; Yan, Z. qiang; He, X. feng; Li, X. zhuang; Qin, B. Allelochemicals from rhizosphere soils of Glycyrrhiza uralensis fisch: discovery of the autotoxic compounds of a traditional herbal medicine. Ind. Crops Prod., 2017, 97, 302-307.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.12.035]
[96]
Li, X.L.; Zhou, A.G. Evaluation of the immunity activity of glycyrrhizin in AR mice. Molecules, 2012, 17(1), 716-727.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules17010716] [PMID: 22241467]
[97]
Shi, J.R.; Mao, L.G.; Jiang, R.A.; Qian, Y.; Tang, H.F.; Chen, J.Q. Monoammonium glycyrrhizinate inhibited the inflammation of LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. Int. Immunopharmacol., 2010, 10(10), 1235-1241.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2010.07.004] [PMID: 20637836]
[98]
Hocaoglu, A.B.; Karaman, O.; Erge, D.O.; Erbil, G.; Yilmaz, O.; Bagriyanik, A.; Uzuner, N. Glycyrrhizin and long-term histopathologic changes in a murine model of asthma. Curr. Ther. Res. Clin. Exp., 2011, 72(6), 250-261.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.curtheres.2011.11.002] [PMID: 24648593]
[99]
Chakotiya, A.S.; Tanwar, A.; Narula, A.; Sharma, R.K. Alternative to antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra on membrane permeability and inhibition of efflux activity and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its in vitro time-kill activity. Microb. Pathog., 2016, 98, 98-105.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2016.07.001] [PMID: 27392698]
[100]
Xu, J.; Wang, X.; Zhang, H.; Yue, J.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, Y. Synthesis of triterpenoid derivatives and their anti-tumor and anti-hepatic fibrosis activities. Nat. Prod. Res., 2020, 34(6), 766-772.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1499642] [PMID: 30445851]
[101]
Kalaiarasi, P.; Pugalendi, K.V. Antihyperglycemic effect of 18 β-glycyrrhetinic acid, aglycone of glycyrrhizin, on streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2009, 606(1-3), 269-273.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.12.057] [PMID: 19374864]
[102]
Yin, C.Y.; Ha, T.S.; Kadir, K.A. Effects of glycyrrhizic acid on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), serum lipid and HOMA-IR in rats. PPAR Res, 2010.
[http://dx.doi.org//10.1155/2010/530265] [PMID: 20011054]
[103]
Eu, C.H.; Lim, W.Y.; Ton, S.H. bin Abdul Kadir, K. Glycyrrhizic acid improved lipoprotein lipase expression, insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and lipid deposition in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Lipids Health Dis., 2010, 9(1), 81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-9-81] [PMID: 20670429]
[104]
Lim, W.Y.A.; Chia, Y.Y.; Liong, S.Y.; Ton, S.H.; Kadir, K.A.; Husain, S.N. Lipoprotein lipase expression, serum lipid and tissue lipid deposition in orally-administered glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats. Lipids Health Dis., 2009, 8, 31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-8-31] [PMID: 19638239]
[105]
Sil, R.; Ray, D.; Chakraborti, A.S. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome-X in rat model. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2013, 51(2), 129-138.
[PMID: 23923606]
[106]
Moro, T.; Shimoyama, Y.; Kushida, M.; Hong, Y.Y.; Nakao, S.; Higashiyama, R.; Sugioka, Y.; Inoue, H.; Okazaki, I.; Inagaki, Y. Glycyrrhizin and its metabolite inhibit Smad3-mediated type I collagen gene transcription and suppress experimental murine liver fibrosis. Life Sci., 2008, 83(15-16), 531-539.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2008.07.023] [PMID: 18771671]
[107]
Dong, L.; Sun, J.Y.; Fang, G.T.; Jiang, L.D.; Wang, J.Y. Effects of glycyrrhizin on TGF beta1 stimulated hepatic stellate cell signaling transduction. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi, 2005, 13(11), 828-831.
[PMID: 16313727]
[108]
Kim, D.E.; Youn, Y.C.; Kim, Y.K.; Hong, K.M.; Lee, C.S. Glycyrrhizin prevents 7-ketocholesterol toxicity against differentiated PC12 cells by suppressing mitochondrial membrane permeability change. Neurochem. Res., 2009, 34(8), 1433-1442.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-009-9930-y] [PMID: 19224363]
[109]
Yim, S.B.; Park, S.E.; Lee, C.S. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced mitochondrial damage and cell death in differentiated PC12 cells. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2007, 321(2), 816-822.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.107.119602] [PMID: 17314199]
[110]
Li, Y.; Bi, X.; Zhu, G.; Han, Z.; Ye, Y.; Liang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Hao, Z.; Zeng, G.; He, H.; Zhong, W. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin on nephrotic syndrome induced by adriamycin in rats. Clin. Invest. Med., 2009, 32(3), 229-238.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.25011/cim.v32i3.6112] [PMID: 19558898]
[111]
Yang, Y.; Shi, Q.; Liu, Z.; Li, R.J.; Pan, P.W.; Hou, Y.Y.; Lu, W.G.; Bai, G. The synergistic anti-asthmatic effects of glycyrrhizin and salbutamol. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 2010, 31(4), 443-449.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/aps.2009.207] [PMID: 20228825]
[112]
Shi, Q.; Hou, Y.; Yang, Y.; Bai, G. Protective effects of glycyrrhizin against β2-adrenergic receptor agonist-induced receptor internalization and cell apoptosis. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2011, 34(5), 609-617.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.34.609] [PMID: 21532146]
[113]
Ao, Y.; Chen, J.; Yue, J.; Peng, R.X. Effects of 18α-glycyrrhizin on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of glibenclamide in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2008, 587(1-3), 330-335.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.03.043] [PMID: 18462715]
[114]
Yu, J.; Jiang, Y.S.; Jiang, Y.; Peng, Y.F.; Sun, Z.; Dai, X.N.; Cao, Q.T.; Sun, Y.M.; Han, J.C.; Gao, Y.J. Targeted metabolomic study indicating glycyrrhizin’s protection against acetaminophen-induced liver damage through reversing fatty acid metabolism. Phytother. Res., 2014, 28(6), 933-936.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5072] [PMID: 25032255]
[115]
Zhang, W.; Lu, C.; Liu, Z.; Yang, D.; Chen, S.; Cha, A.; Wu, Z.; Lu, A. Therapeutic effect of combined triptolide and glycyrrhizin treatment on rats with collagen induced arthritis. Planta Med., 2007, 73(4), 336-340.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-967136] [PMID: 17354165]
[116]
Seki, H.; Sawai, S.; Ohyama, K.; Mizutani, M.; Ohnishi, T.; Sudo, H.; Fukushima, E.O.; Akashi, T.; Aoki, T.; Saito, K.; Muranaka, T. Triterpene functional genomics in licorice for identification of CYP72A154 involved in the biosynthesis of glycyrrhizin. Plant Cell, 2011, 23(11), 4112-4123.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.110.082685] [PMID: 22128119]
[117]
Selyutina, O.Y.; Polyakov, N.E.; Korneev, D.V.; Zaitsev, B.N. Influence of glycyrrhizin on permeability and elasticity of cell membrane: perspectives for drugs delivery. Drug Deliv., 2016, 23(3), 858-865.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10717544.2014.919544] [PMID: 24870200]
[118]
Di Paola, R.; Menegazzi, M.; Mazzon, E.; Genovese, T.; Crisafulli, C.; Dal Bosco, M.; Zou, Z.; Suzuki, H.; Cuzzocrea, S. Protective effects of glycyrrhizin in a gut hypoxia (ischemia)-reoxygenation (reperfusion) model. Intensive Care Med., 2009, 35(4), 687-697.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-008-1334-y] [PMID: 18953525]
[119]
Zhai, D.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, X.; Guo, J.; He, H.; Yu, Q.; Yang, J.; Davey, A.K.; Wang, J. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetic acid and matrine on acute cholestasis induced by α-naphthyl isothiocyanate in rats. Planta Med., 2007, 73(2), 128-133.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-957067] [PMID: 17206559]
[120]
Kao, T.C.; Shyu, M.H.; Yen, G.C. Neuroprotective effects of glycyrrhizic acid and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in PC12 cells via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57(2), 754-761.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf802864k] [PMID: 19105645]
[121]
Assafim, M.; Ferreira, M.S.; Frattani, F.S.; Guimarães, J.A.; Monteiro, R.Q.; Zingali, R.B. Counteracting effect of glycyrrhizin on the hemostatic abnormalities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom. Br. J. Pharmacol., 2006, 148(6), 807-813.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0706786] [PMID: 16751793]
[122]
Zhao, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, H.; Jin, S.; Zhang, S. Glycyrrhizic acid pretreatment prevents sepsis-induced acute kidney injury via suppressing inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2016, 781, 92-99.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.04.006] [PMID: 27063444]
[123]
Zhao, H.; Zhao, M.; Wang, Y.; Li, F.; Zhang, Z. Glycyrrhizic acid prevents sepsis-induced acute lung injury and mortality in rats. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 2016, 64(2), 125-137.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/0022155415610168] [PMID: 26385569]
[124]
Kao, T.C.; Shyu, M.H.; Yen, G.C. Glycyrrhizic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibit inflammation via PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling and glucocorticoid receptor activation. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2010, 58(15), 8623-8629.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf101841r] [PMID: 20681651]
[125]
Li, X.L.; Zhou, A.G.; Zhang, L.; Chen, W.J. Antioxidant status and immune activity of glycyrrhizin in allergic rhinitis mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2011, 12(2), 905-916.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms12020905] [PMID: 21541033]
[126]
Song, J.H.; Lee, J.W.; Shim, B.; Lee, C.Y.; Choi, S.; Kang, C.; Sohn, N.W.; Shin, J.W. Glycyrrhizin alleviates neuroinflammation and memory deficit induced by systemic lipopolysaccharide treatment in mice. Molecules, 2013, 18(12), 15788-15803.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules181215788] [PMID: 24352029]
[127]
Luo, L.; Jin, Y.; Kim, I.D.; Lee, J.K. Glycyrrhizin suppresses HMGB1 inductions in the hippocampus and subsequent accumulation in serum of a kainic acid-induced seizure mouse model. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol., 2014, 34(7), 987-997.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-014-0075-4] [PMID: 24919651]
[128]
Okuma, Y.; Liu, K.; Wake, H.; Liu, R.; Nishimura, Y.; Hui, Z.; Teshigawara, K.; Haruma, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Date, I.; Takahashi, H.K.; Mori, S.; Nishibori, M. Glycyrrhizin inhibits traumatic brain injury by reducing HMGB1-RAGE interaction. Neuropharmacology, 2014, 85(10), 18-26.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.05.007] [PMID: 24859607]
[129]
Jin, Y.; Lim, C.M.; Kim, S.W.; Park, J.Y.; Seo, J.S.; Han, P.L.; Yoon, S.H.; Lee, J.K. Fluoxetine attenuates kainic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the mouse hippocampus. Brain Res., 2009, 1281, 108-116.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.04.053] [PMID: 19427844]
[130]
Barakat, W.; Safwet, N.; El-Maraghy, N.N.; Zakaria, M.N.M. Candesartan and glycyrrhizin ameliorate ischemic brain damage through downregulation of the TLR signaling cascade. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2014, 724(3), 43-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.12.032] [PMID: 24378346]
[131]
Gu, X.J.; Xu, J.; Ma, B.Y.; Chen, G.; Gu, P.Y.; Wei, D.; Hu, W.X. Effect of glycyrrhizin on traumatic brain injury in rats and its mechanism. Chin. J. Traumatol., 2014, 17(1), 1-7.
[PMID: 24506915]
[132]
Jia, Y.X.; Li, J.R.; Mao, C.Y.; Yin, W.T.; Jiang, R.H. Glycyrrhizin improves p75NTR-associated sciatic nerve regeneration in a BALB/c mouse model. Exp. Ther. Med., 2014, 7(5), 1141-1146.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2014.1546] [PMID: 24940400]
[133]
Ming, L.J.; Yin, Y. A.C. Effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) in glucose and lipid homeostasis in pcos female rats. The Open Conf. Proc. J., 2013, 4(1), 170.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2210289201304010170]
[134]
Cheng, H.S.; Yaw, H.P.; Ton, S.H.; Choy, S.M.; Kong, J.M.; Abdul Kadir, K. Glycyrrhizic acid prevents high calorie diet-induced metabolic aberrations despite the suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Nutrition, 2016, 32(9), 995-1001.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.02.002] [PMID: 27130470]
[135]
Fernando, H.A.; Chandramouli, C.; Rosli, D.; Lam, Y.L.; Yong, S.T.; Yaw, H.P.; Ton, S.H.; Kadir, K.A.; Sainsbury, A. Glycyrrhizic acid can attenuate metabolic deviations caused by a high-sucrose diet without causing water retention in male sprague-dawley rats. Nutrients, 2014, 6(11), 4856-4871.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu6114856] [PMID: 25375630]
[136]
Cheng, H.S.; Kong, J.M.; Ng, A.X.; Chan, W.K.; Ton, S.H.; Abdul Kadir, K. Novel inhibitory effects of glycyrrhizic acid on the accumulation of advanced glycation end product and its receptor expression. Nat. Prod. Bioprospect., 2014, 4(6), 325-333.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13659-014-0044-0] [PMID: 25369772]
[137]
Singh, S.; Bigoniya, P.; Shrivastava, B.; Sharma, J. Hypoglycemic profile of gymnemic acid and glycyrrhizic acid on high fructose diet related obesity induced diabetes. Int. J Med. Pharm. Sci., 2016, 6(3), 61-84.
[138]
Tuzcu, Z.; Orhan, C.; Sahin, N.; Juturu, V.; Sahin, K. Cinnamon polyphenol extract inhibits hyperlipidemia and inflammation by modulation of transcription factors in high-fat diet-fed rats. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev., 2017, 2017(4)1583098
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/1583098] [PMID: 28396714]
[139]
Abo El-Magd, N.F.; El-Mesery, M.; El-Karef, A.; El-Shishtawy, M.M. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates high fat diet-induced obesity in rats by activating NrF2 pathway. Life Sci., 2018, 193(193), 159-170.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2017.11.005] [PMID: 29129772]
[140]
Qiu, M.; Huang, K.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Y.; Tang, H.; Liu, X.; Wang, C.; Chen, H.; Xiong, Y.; Zhang, J.; Yang, J. Modulation of intestinal microbiota by glycyrrhizic acid prevents high-fat diet-enhanced pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis. Mucosal Immunol., 2019, 12(4), 945-957.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41385-019-0144-6] [PMID: 30755716]
[141]
Fujisawa, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Matsushita, M.; Fujita, T.; Nishioka, K. Glycyrrhizin inhibits the lytic pathway of complement-possible mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect on liver cells in viral hepatitis. Microbiol. Immunol., 2000, 44(9), 799-804.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1348-0421.2000.tb02566.x] [PMID: 11092245]
[142]
Yu, Z.; Ohtaki, Y.; Kai, K.; Sasano, T.; Shimauchi, H.; Yokochi, T.; Takada, H.; Sugawara, S.; Kumagai, K.; Endo, Y. Critical roles of platelets in lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality: effects of glycyrrhizin and possible strategy for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Int. Immunopharmacol., 2005, 5(3), 571-580.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2004.11.004] [PMID: 15683852]
[143]
Mendes-Silva, W.; Assafim, M.; Ruta, B.; Monteiro, R.Q.; Guimarães, J.A.; Zingali, R.B. Antithrombotic effect of glycyrrhizin, a plant-derived thrombin inhibitor. Thromb. Res., 2003, 112(1-2), 93-98.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2003.10.014] [PMID: 15013279]
[144]
Kang, D.G.; Sohn, E.J.; Mun, Y.J.; Woo, W.H.; Lee, H.S. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates renal function defects in the early-phase of ischemia-induced acute renal failure. Phytother. Res., 2003, 17(8), 947-951.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1270] [PMID: 13680831]
[145]
Zhao, Y.; Zhai, D.; Chen, X.; He, H.; Lu, Q.; Yu, Q. Protective effect of glycyrrhizin and matrine on acute vanishing bile duct syndrome induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate in rats. Hepatol. Res., 2007, 37(2), 143-151.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1872-034X.2007.00019.x] [PMID: 17300710]
[146]
Takii, H.; Kometani, T.; Nishimura, T.; Nakae, T.; Okada, S.; Fushiki, T. Antidiabetic effect of glycyrrhizin in genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2001, 24(5), 484-487.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.24.484] [PMID: 11379765]
[147]
Liu, J.; Cai, Y.; Feng, Y.; Liu, S. Influence of exercise on expressions of PPAR-γand Glut-4 in mice with insulin resistance. Chinese J Cardiovasc. Rehab. Med., 2012, 1(6), 566-572.
[148]
Sen, S.; Roy, M.; Chakraborti, A.S. Ameliorative effects of glycyrrhizin on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2011, 63(2), 287-296.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.2010.01217.x] [PMID: 21235594]
[149]
Cinatl, J.; Morgenstern, B.; Bauer, G.; Chandra, P.; Rabenau, H.; Doerr, H.W. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet, 2003, 361(9374), 2045-2046.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13615-X] [PMID: 12814717]
[150]
Yoshida, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Li, X.D.; Pollard, R.B.; Suzuki, F. Inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on the neutrophil-dependent increase of R5 HIV replication in cultures of macrophages. Immunol. Cell Biol., 2009, 87(7), 554-558.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.2009.40] [PMID: 19529000]
[151]
Wang, L.; Yang, R.; Yuan, B.; Liu, Y.; Liu, C. The antiviral and antimicrobial activities of licorice, a widely-used Chinese herb. Acta Pharm. Sin. B, 2015, 5(4), 310-315.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2015.05.005] [PMID: 26579460]
[152]
Kao, T.C.; Wu, C.H.; Yen, G.C. Glycyrrhizic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid recover glucocorticoid resistance via PI3K-induced AP1, CRE and NFAT activation. Phytomedicine, 2013, 20(3-4), 295-302.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2012.10.013] [PMID: 23218403]
[153]
Michaelis, M.; Geiler, J.; Naczk, P.; Sithisarn, P.; Leutz, A.; Doerr, H.W.; Cinatl, J., Jr Glycyrrhizin exerts antioxidative effects in H5N1 influenza A virus-infected cells and inhibits virus replication and pro-inflammatory gene expression. PLoS One, 2011, 6(5)e19705
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019705] [PMID: 21611183]
[154]
Wolkerstorfer, A.; Kurz, H.; Bachhofner, N.; Szolar, O.H.J. Glycyrrhizin inhibits influenza A virus uptake into the cell. Antiviral Res., 2009, 83(2), 171-178.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.04.012] [PMID: 19416738]
[155]
Gaur, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Singh, P.; Pal, A.; Darokar, M.P.; Bhakuni, R.S. Drug resistance reversal potential of isoliquiritigenin and liquiritigenin isolated from Glycyrrhiza glabra against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Phytother. Res., 2016, 30(10), 1708-1715.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5677] [PMID: 27388327]
[156]
Stewart, P.M.; Wallace, A.M.; Valentino, R.; Burt, D.; Shackleton, C.H.; Edwards, C.R. Mineralocorticoid activity of liquorice: 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency comes of age. Lancet, 1987, 2(8563), 821-824.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(87)91014-2] [PMID: 2889032]
[157]
Kang, D.G.; Sohn, E.J.; Lee, H.S. Effects of glycyrrhizin on renal functions in association with the regulation of water channels. Am. J. Chin. Med., 2003, 31(3), 403-413.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X03001089] [PMID: 12943171]
[158]
Tanahashi, T.; Mune, T.; Morita, H.; Tanahashi, H.; Isomura, Y.; Suwa, T.; Daido, H.; Gomez-Sanchez, C.E.; Yasuda, K. Glycyrrhizic acid suppresses type 2 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in vivo. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2002, 80(4-5), 441-447.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-0760(02)00033-X] [PMID: 11983491]
[159]
Isbrucker, R.A.; Burdock, G.A. Risk and safety assessment on the consumption of Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza sp.), its extract and powder as a food ingredient, with emphasis on the pharmacology and toxicology of glycyrrhizin. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2006, 46(3), 167-192.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2006.06.002] [PMID: 16884839]
[160]
Sigurjonsdottir, H.Á.; Manhem, K.; Axelson, M.; Wallerstedt, S. Subjects with essential hypertension are more sensitive to the inhibition of 11 β-HSD by liquorice. J. Hum. Hypertens., 2003, 17(2), 125-131.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jhh.1001504] [PMID: 12574791]
[161]
Liao, S.; Jin, X.; Li, J.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, W.; Shi, W.; Fan, S.; Wang, X.; Wang, J.; Zhong, B.; Zhang, Z. Effects of silymarin, glycyrrhizin and oxymatrine on the pharmacokinetics of ribavirin and its major metabolite in rats. Phytother. Res., 2016, 30(4), 618-626.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5567] [PMID: 26800424]
[162]
Arentz, S.; Smith, C.A.; Abbott, J.; Fahey, P.; Cheema, B.S.; Bensoussan, A. Combined lifestyle and herbal medicine in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a randomized controlled trial. Phytother. Res., 2017, 31(9), 1330-1340.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5858] [PMID: 28685911]
[163]
Choi, J.S.; Han, J.Y.; Ahn, H.K.; Ryu, H.M.; Kim, M.Y.; Chung, J.H.; Nava-Ocampo, A.A.; Koren, G. Fetal and neonatal outcomes in women reporting ingestion of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) during pregnancy. Planta Med., 2013, 79(2), 97-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1328102] [PMID: 23299757]
[164]
Manns, M.P.; Wedemeyer, H.; Singer, A.; Khomutjanskaja, N.; Dienes, H.P.; Roskams, T.; Goldin, R.; Hehnke, U.; Inoue, H. European SNMC Study Group, Glycyrrhizin in patients who failed previous interferon alpha-based therapies: biochemical and histological effects after 52 weeks. J. Viral Hepat., 2012, 19(8), 537-546.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2893.2011.01579.x] [PMID: 22762137]
[165]
Yasui, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Tawada, A.; Fukuda, Y.; Nakano, M.; Yokosuka, O. Efficacy of intravenous glycyrrhizin in the early stage of acute onset autoimmune hepatitis. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2011, 56(12), 3638-3647.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-011-1789-5] [PMID: 21681505]
[166]
Song, Z.; Gong, Y.; Liu, H.; Ren, Q.; Sun, X. Glycyrrhizin could reduce ocular hypertension induced by triamcinolone acetonide in rabbits. Mol. Vis., 2011, 17, 2056-2064.
[PMID: 21850181]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 27
ISSUE: 36
Year: 2020
Published on: 04 November, 2020
Page: [6219 - 6243]
Pages: 25
DOI: 10.2174/0929867325666191011115407
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 40
HTML: 3